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Ancient & Modern Wonders of the World
Transcript of Ancient & Modern Wonders of the World
#1 Great Pyramid of Giza
The Great Pyramid, located at Giza on the west bank of the Nile River north of Cairo, are the only wonder of the ancient world that has survived to the present day. The three pyramids--Menkaura (Mycerimus), Khafra (Chephren) and Khufu (Cheops),--were built between 2700 B.C. and 2500 B.C. as royal tombs.
I'm the tallest!
#2 Hanging Gardens of Babylon
The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were built near the Euphrates River in modern-day Iraq by the Babylonian king Nebuchadrezzar II around 600 B.C. The gardens were said to have been planted as high as 75 feet in the air on a huge square brick terrace that was laid out in steps like a theater. The king allegedly built the towering gardens to ease his lover Amytis’ homesickness for the natural beauty of her home
#3 Statue of Zeus at Olympia
The Lincoln Memorial with its single large statue and columns probably is very much like the temple of Zeus except the statue of the King of the Gods was more than double the height of Lincoln.
Zeus show me a
sign of your
The statue of Zeus was crafted by the Athenian sculptor Phidias and completed and placed in the temple of Zeus at Olympia. The statue depicted the god of thunder seated bare-chested at a wooden throne. Holding up the thrones’ armrests were two carved sphinxes, mythical creatures with the head and chest of a woman, the body of lion and the wings of a bird. The statue of Zeus was richly decorated with gold and ivory. At 40 feet, it was so tall that its head nearly touched the top of the temple. According to legend, the sculptor Phidias asked Zeus for a sign of his approval after finishing the statue; soon after, the temple was struck by lightning.
#4 Temple of Artemis at Ephesus
The Ephesus goddess Artemis, sometimes called Diana, is not quite the same figure as was worshiped in Greece. The Greek Artemis was the goddess of the hunt. The Ephesus Artemis was a goddess of fertility and was often pictured as draped with eggs or multiple breasts, symbols of fertility, from her waist to her shoulders.
The first shrine to the Goddess Artemis was probably built around 800 B.C. on a marshy strip near the river at Ephesus. The shrine was destroyed and rebuilt several times over the next few hundred years. The city of Ephesus had become a major port of trade and an architect named Chersiphron was engaged to build a new, larger temple. He designed it with high stone columns. Then that one was destroyed but a few more were constructed in it's place. Eventually the temple's up keep declined along with its importance as a crossroads of trade
One of the column bases with carved figures preserved at the British Museum.
#5 Mausoleum at Halicarnassus
In 353 B.C. Mausolus died, leaving his queen Artemisia, who was also his sister, broken-hearted. As a tribute to him, she decided to build him the most splendid tomb in the known world. It became a structure so famous that Mausolus's name is now associated with all stately tombs throughout the world through the word mausoleum.
One of the most enduring and misunderstood myths about the camel is it's ability to go days without water. Myth tells us that the camel stores water in its hump. The truth is the hump(s) are a fatty deposit that provides energy when food is scarce. When a camel uses the fat stored in its humps for energy, the humps start to get smaller and deflate. The humps grow again when the camel eats and rehydrates.
Pliny Bryaxis, Leochares, Timotheus and Scopas, the sculptors hired along with hundreds of other workmen and craftsmen, each took one side of the tomb to decorate. Together they finished the building in the styles of three different cultures: Egyptian, Greek and Lycian.
Top: A replica of the tomb that was at the top of Mausoleum of Halicarnassus. In 1852 British Museum sent the archaeologist Charles Thomas Newton, former museum employee, for further research in Halicarnassus. He bought some land, and dug tunnels to reach the foundations of the Mausoleum.
Bottom: He located the foundation, corners of the site, staircase, parts of stepped roof, one large broken stone wheel from a carved chariot, several statues including Artemisia II and Mausolos. All these findings can be seen in the British Museum in London.
#6 Colossus of Rhodes
The Colossus was an enormous bronze sculpture of the sun god Helios built by the Rhodians to celebrate their victory and freedom. It took over 12 years of construction in the third century B.C. Designed by the sculptor Chares of Lindos, the statue was, at 100 feet, the tallest of the ancient world. It was completed around 280 B.C. and stood for sixty years until it was toppled in an earthquake. It was never rebuilt.
Historians believe the figure was nude or semi-nude with a cloak over its left arm or shoulder. Some think it was wearing a spiked crown, shading its eyes from the rising sun with its right hand, or possibly using that hand to hold a torch aloft in a pose similar to one later given to the Statue of Liberty.
How the Colossus of Rhodes was destroyed! Sike! It was believed to be destoryed by an earthquake but cool game none the less.
#7 Lighthouse of Alexandria
The Lighthouse of Alexandria was located on a small island called Pharos near the city of Alexandria. Designed by the Greek architect Sostratos and completed around 270 B.C., the lighthouse helped to guide Nile River ships in and out of the city’s busy harbor. The structure had three tiers: a square level at the bottom, an octagonal level in the middle and a cylindrical top. Above that stood a 16-foot statue, most likely of Ptolemy II or Alexander the Great, for whom the city was named. Although estimates of the lighthouse’s height have ranged from 200 to 600 feet, most modern scholars believe it was about 380 feet tall.
An ancient coin with the likeness of the Pharos on it.
The Lighthouse of Alexandria's design was unlike the slim single column of most modern lighthouses of today. For example Tybee Islands lighthouse located at Tybee Island, GA.
Seven Wonders of the Modern World
Opened in 1994, the Channel Tunnel is a tunnel under the English Channel that connects Folkestone in the United Kingdom with Coquelles in France. The Channel Tunnel actually consists of three tunnels: two tunnels carry trains and a smaller middle tunnel is used as a service tunnel. The Channel Tunnel is 31.35 miles (50 km) long, with 24 of those miles located under water.
# 1 Channel Tunnel
#2 CN Tower
The CN Tower, located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, is a telecommunications tower that was built by Canadian National Railways in 1976. As of 2012, the CN Tower is the world's third largest tower at 553.3 meters (1,815 ft). The CN Tower broadcasts television, radio, and wireless signals throughout the Toronto region.
Take a virtual tour!
#3 Empire State Building
When the Empire State Building opened on May 1, 1931, it was the tallest building in the world - standing at 1,250 feet tall. It became an icon of New York City as well as a symbol of human success in to achieving the impossible. Located at 350 Fifth Avenue in New York City, the Empire State Building is a 102-story building. The height of the building to the top of its lightning rod is actually 1,454 feet.
Nenner, Nenner, Nenner!
When the Eiffel Tower (984 feet) was built in 1889 in Paris it, in a way, taunted American architects to build something taller. By the early twentieth century, a skyscraper race was on.
#4 Golden Gate Bridge
The Golden Gate Bridge, connects the city of San Francisco with Marin County. It was the bridge with longest span in the world from the time it was completed in 1937 until the completion of the Verrazano Narrows Bridge in New York in 1964. The Golden Gate Bridge is 1.7 miles long and about 41 million trips are made across the bridge each year.
#5 Itaipu Dam
Itaipu Dam, located on the border of Brazil and Paraguay, is the world's largest operating hydroelectric facility. It was completed in 1984. The dam supplies Paraguay with more than 90% of its electrical needs.
Guaíra Falls, also known as the "Seven Falls," was thought by many to be the most spectacular natural water feature in the world. It had a total height more than twice that of Niagara Falls and a water flow that was more than double. It was submerged under the lake by the growing reservoir and then dynamited to allow safe navigation of the river.
#6 Netherlands North Sea Protection Works
Nearly one-third of the Netherlands lies below sea level. To prevent flooding a 19 mile-long dike called Afsluitdijk (the Closing Dike) was built to protect the most of the country. Collectively, the dikes and works that where constructed is known as the Netherlands North Sea Protection Works.
Kinderdijk is the most famous group of polder mills. The nineteen mills were constructed around 1740 as part of a larger water management system which prevented floods. Now they’re a symbol of Dutch water management. T
#7 The Panama Canal
The 48 mile-long international waterway known as the Panama Canal allows ships to pass between the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean, saving about 8000 miles from a journey around the southern tip of South America, Cape Horn. It takes approximately fifteen hours to traverse the canal through its three sets of locks (about half the time is spent waiting due to traffic).
The Panama Canal created a shortcut from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific.
The amazing works of art and architecture known as the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World serve as a testament to the ingenuity, imagination and sheer hard work of which human beings are capable. They are also, however, reminders of the human capacity for disagreement, destruction and, possibly, embellishment. Since it was Greeks who made the lists it is not unusal that many of the items on them were examples of Greek culture. So sit back, get comfy and enjoy the flashback tour.
The American Society of Civil Engineers selected Seven Wonders of the Modern World, engineering marvels that exemplified the abilities of humans to construct amazing features on Earth. Even though totally different then ancient times, the same imagination and creativity gives us the shock and awe of the most remarkable civil engineering feats of the 20th century. Maybe one day you will actually travel and see them with your own eyes. Until then, enjoy this guide.
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