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Transcript of Human Evolution
What is Evolution??
Evolution is the change in the
characteristics of biological
over successive generations.
Evolution is responsible for
within species, individual organisms and molecules such as DNA and proteins.
Human evolution is the evolutionary process leading up to the appearance of
Human evolution really began with the last common
of all life, but we regard it now as emergence from apes.
Anatomical Changes in Humans
Human evolution has seen a large number of
, developmental, physiological, and behavioral changes that have occurred since the
off between the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees.
Morphological - form and
Developmental - the
of growing to maturity
Physiological - the study of
in living systems
Behavioral - range of
displayed by humans and which are influenced by many things
Types of Anatomical Changes
Bipedalism - the form of terrestrial (on land)
where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs, or legs
This is the main cause behind most of
changes shared by all bipedal hominids.
Encephalization - the amount of brain mass related to an animal's total
The more brain mass per body weight, the more
The human species developed a much larger brain than that of other primates, over twice the size of that of a chimpanzee or
Other anatomical changes in humans include: reduction in sexual
(human males and females look similar), well developed chins (prognathism), sweat glands, and a
larynx (allows us to talk)
Why is it necessary for humans and animals to change over time? What might happen if they could not change?
Why do you think hands evolved before feet? (Think about everything you know about how humans came to be)
Evolutionary history of the primates can be traced back
Molecular evidence suggests that around
years ago, first the gorillas, and then the chimpanzees split off from the line leading to the humans
The earliest fossils that have been proposed as members of the hominin lineage date back
From these early species, the australopithecines arose around
years ago and probably went on to become ancestors of the genus Homo
The earliest members of the genus
which evolved around
is the first species for which we have positive
of the use of stone tools.
Do Now: Why is learning how to use tools helpful to survive?
Sapiens is Latin for "wise" or "
This is what modern humans are
Lived from about
years ago to the present
About 250,000 years ago, skulls sizes started rapidly expanding and stone tool
developed, providing evidence for a transition from
Research has shown that humans are very
of individuals is more alike than usual for most species
This may have resulted from relatively
evolution or possibly a population bottleneck
Homo sapiens neanderthalensis (Neanderthals),
that is why they are extinct
Could you outcompete a
Yes, Natural selection occurs in modern human populations.
Mutations in humans are being discovered all the time
Remember, not all mutations are good!