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Industrial Design Timeline

QUT, Industrial Design History, Theory & Criticism. Student number n7707819 Assignment last updated 21.06.2011
by

Kia Handler Krøjgaard

on 11 September 2013

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Transcript of Industrial Design Timeline

User involvement
Total design
Product
development

20th century
Technology
New
Polypropylene
Cubism
Industrial
Revolution

De Stijl
Industrial Revolution in the US
Constructivism
Consumer
Products

1700
Art Deco
Bauhaus
Industrial Design Timeline
Iron
Agricultural
Revolution

1712 First Steam Engine by Thomas Newcomen
1769 Further developed by James Watt
The Great
Exhibition

New Technologies
Telephone
Music player
Modernism
WWI
Wall Street crash
Founded by Walter Gropius
Arts and Crafts movements
Formation of cities
Growth of population
and factory workers
1919-1933
approx. 1750-1900
Europe approx. 1700-1900
1914-1918
Small communities and local craftsmen
Social structure
WWII
Weapon mass production
This timeline is focused on the most important events, persons and movements, which have influenced the development and understanding of industrial design through the last three centuries.
Introduction
Steam Engine
http://www.automation-drive.com/EX/05-14-09/watteng.jpg
French
Revolution

London
1709
Iron made from coal in stead of charcoal by Abraham Darby.
1804 First Railway Locomotive (Steam engine)
Napoleon Bonaparte I
1789
1828
Nielson's hot blast process for iron founding
1856 Steel production process developed
1893 Diesel Engine
Bringing arts and craft from nations world wide together to share experiences
Details in ornament = skills + time = value
Transportation
1920 Steel tubing developed
1779
First Iron Bridge by Abraham Darby III
http://www.akademifantasia.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/iron-bridge.jpg
http://explorepahistory.com/kora/files/1/2/1-2-C9-25-ExplorePAHistory-a0b5a9-a_349.jpg
Steel
1793-1815 Napoleanic wars Britain - France
Increases the iron production for weapon
http://www.world-history-movies.com/image-files/french-revolution.jpg
1890 First tube opened in London
1877
First telephone by Alexander Graham Bell produced in Canada. Connected to operator
Time of memorial 1600-1700
No schools, hard working children
Owners own more
Workers turn to labours
Rococo
Excessed ornamentation style spread from France as people fled
Crystal Palace
1851
Patent Books
were published with styles & designs of wallpaper, fabrics, fireplaces, cakemolds etc.
Mechanisation
Labour
1840 High pressure steam engine
Development of the public transport system created better opportunity for postal service.
First stamp and christmas cards by Henry Cole
1939-1945
Underpressed labours living in small houses.
Both women and children doing hard work
Ethic and morals lead to improvements of labour conditions
Increasing age of workers
Decreasing work hours
Implementing schools and education for all children
Straight into steam power
1800
1950
1884
Lewis Waterman develops the Fountain pen with smooth ink flow
1873
First succesfull typewriter
1875
The offset printing technique was developed by Robert Barclay
Writing
1840
1844
Telegraph is developed via electromagnetism and using morsecode
1879
First dial patent applied for
Development of dial into press buttons, connected speaker & receiver
1877
Edison's Phonograph for recording media
1887
Further development an idea of purpose gave the Gramophone Berliner - first record player, playing rubber discs
1920's
The portable wind-up gramophone became very popular
Camera
1935
First photographs by William Talbot
"Wet plate photographer"
Expensive equipment, only for the rich!
1880
Dry plates technology
1888
First film strip
Design of the Box Brownie
Making photographing movable
Bicycle
1817
Hobby Horse
1865
Pedals on front wheels
1870
Penny Farthing
For the rich young men
1890
Rover safety bicycle with chain. Designed to women as well.
1897
Improved with rubber tires, later on air tyres
Sewing Machine
1791
British Thomas Saint patent on sewing machine
Improving the infrastructure
1830
Thimmonier created the first functional sewing machine in France
1846
The first lock stitch sewing machine patentet in US by Howe
It was hand driven, later on connected to a pedal
Designed for women, flower & gold ornaments
1851
Singer company started producing and selling new designs of the sewing machine
Fridge
Initially preserving foods through salting, smoking, drying
Ice Houses
Development of transport infrastructure made it possible to harvest ice from cooler places
1876
Carl von Linden developed method for liquifying gas
1934
Redesign of the fridge by Raymond Loewy for the company Sears, Roebuck & Co.
1918
The first commercially successful fridge, The Kelvinator produces in the US
1929
Preveiously toxic gases were replaced with the "non" toxic (believed at the time) gas Freon
Streamlining style
Holland 1920's
Futurism
Pablo Picasso
Propaganda - Graphic communication
Product identity
Peter Behrens designer for AEG develops product branding and product identity
http://blog.stylefactory.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/02_0_412.jpeg
19th century
Inspired by cubism, futurism, the dynamics and geometry of USSR
1917 - Red & Blue Chair
Aleksander Rodchenko
Russian Revolution 1917. Graphic design
Gerrit Rietveld
http://designhistorylab.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/rodchenko-300x210.jpg
1891-1956
1888-1964
Founded by Theo van Doesburg
1883–1931
Neoplasticism
Post-modernism
Art Nouveau
http://www.artyfactory.com/art_appreciation/art_movements/cubism.htm
1881-1973
Factory, Horta de Ebbo (oil on canvas, 1909)
A style that brings back elements from the ornamentation in the Rococo and Romanticism
1920's & 30's
After the first world war jobs, money, consumers etc. boomed in US, which helped increase the popularity of this style
1929
Streamlining
The Great Depression
http://images.wikia.com/cloverfield/images/1/14/Chrysler-building-address-1-.jpg
http://schools-history.info/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/2_great_depression.jpg
http://sitemaker.umich.edu/youthunderfascism/home
http://www.aberjonapress.com/catalog/sh/images/tigertank.jpg
1941 Tigertank Germany
http://www.infantry-weapons.org/images/SMG_LMG_Room_1.jpg
1940 Stengun Britain
Scarcity in materials and expertise
Increases creativity
Man vs machine
Geometric shapes
http://www.morningstaronline.co.uk/var/news/storage/images/culture/arts/exhibition/futurism/1257513-1-eng-GB/futurism_large.jpg
Christopher Richard Wynne Nevinson's The Arrival, 1913
US Agriculture in late 18th century
End of 19th century US, the largest manufacturing force on earth
Homogenous market and labour shortage
1950's Standardisation
& interchangability
Increase in mechanisation
http://jeffcoweb.jeffco.k12.co.us/middle/carmody/Prichard/industrial_revolution.jpg
1908 Henry Ford Builds the Model T car and develops the first factory assembly line. It was very successful until people found it booring. It was outdated due to a demand for novelty.
1851 John Ruskin "The Stones of Venice"
Highest around 1880-1910
1965 Walter Gropius writes the new architecture and the Bauhaus
Focus on the functionality, form, preparing for mass production and the possibilities of the new steel tubing along with other materials
Pop-art
Braking up with "international design" guidelines.
Undisciplined, all directions. Design made disposable.
NewYork World fair
1939
Andy Warhol
1928 – 1987
Mass culture
1960's & 70's
Around 1890-1910
Futurama style
Optimism after the depression
Deutsche Werkbund
"Building the World of Tomorrow"
http://www.absolutemichigan.com/dig/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/1939-new-york-worlds-fair-poster.jpg
1900
2000
The Modern Movement
Different groups working towards achieving good design for mass production relying on accessibility, honesty and purity and use of new materials redesigned aesthetics for many industrial and domestic products around the mid 1930's
Named after the style of 'Exposition des Arts Decoratif et Industriel', held in Paris in 1925
During the 1920s, De Stijl exerted influence on the Bauhaus, with Theo van Doesburg visiting Weimar in 1922. Also Maholoy Nagy joined the Bauhaus from De Stijl in 1922. He led the production of more industrially useful designs, and he encouraged the use of steel tubing, plywood and glass instead of silver, timber and clay (Blackler 2011).
Within the new school, each workshop had a “master of form” (an artist) and a “master of applied arts”
Foundet 1907 in Munich as a response to concerns of the industrialisations effect on German culture (Campbell 1978)
Height of Werkbund was their exhibition in 1914
Herman Muthesis
Henri van der Velde
Walter Gropius
Peter Behrens
They believed that the applied arts would be revived through machines controlled by the nation's best artists.
Important members
http://www.kultur-online.net/files/exhibition/05_562.jpg
1970 - still
The American Dream
Volkswagen Beetle
Most successful car in the world
Research within aerodynamics
Streamlining became a popular word for all designs
US now has the worlds most advanced consumer culture
Designers become consultans within design companies
1947 Tupperware changes the way products can be sold via tupperware parties
Economic growth, avoided WWII
Some of the leading designers of experimenting with new materials, methods and tecknologies.
Herman Miller, Charles Eames
Medical equipment & furniture
More focus on comfort and informality
'International Style'
1960's Technology optimism
Transistor TV
1959 TV for mass production by SONY
Japan becomes leading within technological products
SONY Walkman
Italy
1946 Vespa Scooter
1947
Babyboomers
Also called Stile Liberty or Jugenstil
Amongst the advokators were Ruskin and Pujin
1973 Oil crisis
Stopped optimism from the 1960's
70's movements
Democracy demonstrations
Youth culture (babyboomers)
Vietnam war
1959-1975
1962 First polypropylene chair by Robin Day
Polyethylene
1957 Hula Hoop
Model T
http://aviewfromthemeadow.files.wordpress.com/2010/08/large_hula_hoop_models.jpg
http://www.building.co.uk/Pictures/web/x/d/j/Day_Polypropylene_web.jpg
Fiberglass
1965 Verner panton S-chair
http://blog.stylehive.com/images/uploads/ballchair.jpg
1932, Ball chair by Eero Aarnio
materials
Also new in the 20th century:
Nylon (1939)
Polyester (1942)
Processed woods (Plywoods)
Metal alloys
Further development on:
Telephone
Computer
Camera etc.
1979
New
New processing method for plastic
http://www.peacebuttons.info/E-News/images/GetOutofVietnam_000.gif
http://farm5.static.flickr.com/4050/4317913777_8a3689af1b.jpg
The Internet
Workspace & software design
Design for emotion
Anti-modernism. Strong movement away from modernism. In general considered everything, which is not modernism; Ornaments, bright colours, passion mix.
Consideres modernism to be booring, plain, too functional (everything ordered in systems)
Ettore Sottsass
Designer for Olivetti
Having fun!
"Post modernism is like the cake of design"
http://www.furniturefashion.com/images/ettore%20sottsass%201980s%20carlton%20bookcase%20from%20Memphis%20Italy.jpg
2011
People born from 1945-1960 dominate the market
Created products for Braun that revived the austere geometric aesthetic of pre war design, adapting minimalism to encompass miniaturization particularly in his record player of 1959. (Blackler, 2011)
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_YdAacBURVXE/S4WqshoC04I/AAAAAAAAFXA/JCU2aQ7kwuA/s320/american_dream.jpg
Scandinavian Design
very popular in the 1950's
Dieter Rams
Has changed the way we communicate. Graphical design, interface design (GUI)
Miniturization
Minimalism
Functionalism
http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/47199000/jpg/_47199758_cooking_pot_512.jpg
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/programmes/peoplesmuseum/images/day2_2.jpg
http://www.datazap.net/sites/3for3get3/37735.JPG
http://www.myptsmail.com/hotdog256/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/first_telegraph.jpg
http://www.themarketingshoppe.com/images/print/old-printer.gif
http://www.themarketingshoppe.com/images/print/old-printer.gif
http://www.lostnfoundantiques.com/items/419295/catphoto.jpg
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/programmes/peoplesmuseum/images/day1_2.jpg
http://www.bikingbis.com/_photos/tstevens.sized.gif
http://www.xtimeline.com/__UserPic_Large/4737/ELT200801211201353377179.JPG
http://joelkuschke.files.wordpress.com/2009/07/300px-bicycle_1900.jpg
http://www.ismacs.net/howe/images/howhalftoneuse.jpg
http://patriciya.com/singersewingmachine/wp-content/plugins/greenstuff/images/singersewingofbasicsmachines.jpg
http://www.2blowhards.com/Sears%20Coldspot%20-%20Loewy%20-%201935.jpg
http://volkswagenbeetle.goyalive.com/img/vw-beetle-so-popular.jpg
http://darthblender.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/andy-warhol-pop-art-marylin-monroe.jpg
References:
Pictures and information from lectures and material for the course 'Industrial Design History, Theory & Criticism' QUT Semester 1, 2011. Teacher: Thea Blackler. Unless other sources are referenced below them.
Kia Handler Krøjgaard
n7707918
Full transcript