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What you need to know about diseases.

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Luis Cruz

on 6 April 2015

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Transcript of What you need to know about diseases.

3. Vaccines – substance that helps how our bodies develop immunity to a disease

*Immunity – the ability to resist or recover from an infectious disease

-Today’s vaccines contain pathogens that are killed or specially treated so that they can’t make you very sick but it is enough like the pathogen to allow your body to develop a defense against the disease

6. Through Food and Water – bacteria/microorganisms can grow on/in food and water

Dangerous microorganisms can enter water supply, even in the US, and spread disease to many

Bacteria can grow in foods and beverages that are not cooled or cooked properly

Many are contagious

Some, like the common cold, can be spread through air or touch

Others, like HIV, are spread through body fluids

Flu and mononucleosis are also viral

Viral Disease

3. Direct person to person contact
example: shaking hands, kissing, touching sores of infected person

4. Carriers – People who pass disease to others. Some carriers can pass disease without even feeling sick

Genetic disorder -Passed from parents’ genes ex: hemophilia

Genetic predisposition – Have genes that may increase chance of developing disease (may or may not develop disease) ex: cancer or heart disease

Causes of Noninfectious Disease

Heart disease
Strep throat

What are some examples of diseases?

1. Pasteurization – Use of heat to kill bacteria milk we drink has been pasteurized

2. Antibiotics – Substance that can kill bacteria or slow the growth of bacteria
Used to treat bacterial disease and some disease caused by fungi

Can kill only living things (bacteria & fungi) so they have no effect on viruses since they are not alive (so they cannot help with colds/flu)

How we fight disease

Mutagens are substances that cause a person’s cells to mutate or change form

X-rays, cigarette smoke, and sunlight can cause human cells to change in harmful ways

Sunlight, for example, can change skin cells and cause skin cancer

Disease caused by Mutagens

Parasite is an organism that gets its food from another living organism (host)

Protists, fungi, and tiny invertebrates are types of parasites that cause disease

Malaria – disease caused by protists
Athlete’s foot – disease caused by fungus
Elephantiasis – disease caused
by a parasitic worm

Parasitic Disease

Each pathogen causes a specific disease
But each disease can be grouped in a category depending on what type of pathogen causes them
Five types of pathogens that cause disease
1. Bacteria - cause bacterial diseases
2. Viruses – cause viral diseases
3. Parasites – cause parasitic diseases
4. Chemicals
5. Mutagens

Kinds of Disease

Some foods that are not cooked enough can contain dangerous bacteria and parasites

Refrigerating foods can slow the growth of many pathogens

5. Through animals – can be carriers OR vectors of a disease

Vectors – transmits a pathogen from a host to a new organism

Example: A mosquito bites an animal infected with malaria and then bites a person, the malaria pathogen infects the person

2. By contaminated objects – when an infected person touches, sneezes, coughs, etc and pathogens are left on objects

Examples: doorknobs, keyboards, pencils, combs, towels, handrails, money

Lack of exercise
High fat diet

Examples: heart disease, diabetes, some types of cancer

Factors that increase chances of developing some noninfectious diseases

Noninfectious diseases – Diseases that are NOT spread from person to person
ex: heart disease and cancer

Infectious diseases – Diseases that can be passed from one living thing to another
ex: strep throat and rabies

Infectious vs Noninfectious

Dangerous chemicals act as a poison to the body

Lead is chemical that may enter body through water or air and can cause lead poisoning which leads to brain damage, kidney failure, liver and other organ damage

Asbestos – chemical can cause cancer

Disease caused by chemicals

1. Through the air

Example: one sneeze releases thousands of tiny droplets of moisture that can contain countless pathogens

How infectious diseases are spread

Strep test

Many are contagious

Sinus infections, tuberculosis, strep throat are caused by bacteria

Antibiotics are medicines that are used to kill bacteria

Bacterial Disease

Electron-microscopic picture of rabies virus

group A streptococcus bacteria, can cause scarlet fever, strep throat, and other diseases
Caused by pathogens
Pathogens can be in the form of a virus, bacteria, microorganism, or other organism
Example: Tuberculosis is caused by a bacteria while the measles are causes by a virus

Infectious Disease




An epidemic occurs when an infectious disease spreads rapidly to many people.

In 2003, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic took the lives of nearly 800 people worldwide.
A pandemic is a global disease outbreak.

HIV/AIDS is an example of one of the most destructive global pandemics in history.

Influenza pandemics have occurred more than once.
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