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What you need to know about diseases.
Transcript of What you need to know about diseases.
*Immunity – the ability to resist or recover from an infectious disease
-Today’s vaccines contain pathogens that are killed or specially treated so that they can’t make you very sick but it is enough like the pathogen to allow your body to develop a defense against the disease
6. Through Food and Water – bacteria/microorganisms can grow on/in food and water
Dangerous microorganisms can enter water supply, even in the US, and spread disease to many
Bacteria can grow in foods and beverages that are not cooled or cooked properly
Many are contagious
Some, like the common cold, can be spread through air or touch
Others, like HIV, are spread through body fluids
Flu and mononucleosis are also viral
3. Direct person to person contact
example: shaking hands, kissing, touching sores of infected person
4. Carriers – People who pass disease to others. Some carriers can pass disease without even feeling sick
Genetic disorder -Passed from parents’ genes ex: hemophilia
Genetic predisposition – Have genes that may increase chance of developing disease (may or may not develop disease) ex: cancer or heart disease
Causes of Noninfectious Disease
What are some examples of diseases?
1. Pasteurization – Use of heat to kill bacteria milk we drink has been pasteurized
2. Antibiotics – Substance that can kill bacteria or slow the growth of bacteria
Used to treat bacterial disease and some disease caused by fungi
Can kill only living things (bacteria & fungi) so they have no effect on viruses since they are not alive (so they cannot help with colds/flu)
How we fight disease
Mutagens are substances that cause a person’s cells to mutate or change form
X-rays, cigarette smoke, and sunlight can cause human cells to change in harmful ways
Sunlight, for example, can change skin cells and cause skin cancer
Disease caused by Mutagens
Parasite is an organism that gets its food from another living organism (host)
Protists, fungi, and tiny invertebrates are types of parasites that cause disease
Malaria – disease caused by protists
Athlete’s foot – disease caused by fungus
Elephantiasis – disease caused
by a parasitic worm
Each pathogen causes a specific disease
But each disease can be grouped in a category depending on what type of pathogen causes them
Five types of pathogens that cause disease
1. Bacteria - cause bacterial diseases
2. Viruses – cause viral diseases
3. Parasites – cause parasitic diseases
Kinds of Disease
Some foods that are not cooked enough can contain dangerous bacteria and parasites
Refrigerating foods can slow the growth of many pathogens
5. Through animals – can be carriers OR vectors of a disease
Vectors – transmits a pathogen from a host to a new organism
Example: A mosquito bites an animal infected with malaria and then bites a person, the malaria pathogen infects the person
2. By contaminated objects – when an infected person touches, sneezes, coughs, etc and pathogens are left on objects
Examples: doorknobs, keyboards, pencils, combs, towels, handrails, money
Lack of exercise
High fat diet
Examples: heart disease, diabetes, some types of cancer
Factors that increase chances of developing some noninfectious diseases
Noninfectious diseases – Diseases that are NOT spread from person to person
ex: heart disease and cancer
Infectious diseases – Diseases that can be passed from one living thing to another
ex: strep throat and rabies
Infectious vs Noninfectious
Dangerous chemicals act as a poison to the body
Lead is chemical that may enter body through water or air and can cause lead poisoning which leads to brain damage, kidney failure, liver and other organ damage
Asbestos – chemical can cause cancer
Disease caused by chemicals
1. Through the air
Example: one sneeze releases thousands of tiny droplets of moisture that can contain countless pathogens
How infectious diseases are spread
Many are contagious
Sinus infections, tuberculosis, strep throat are caused by bacteria
Antibiotics are medicines that are used to kill bacteria
Electron-microscopic picture of rabies virus
group A streptococcus bacteria, can cause scarlet fever, strep throat, and other diseases
Caused by pathogens
Pathogens can be in the form of a virus, bacteria, microorganism, or other organism
Example: Tuberculosis is caused by a bacteria while the measles are causes by a virus
An epidemic occurs when an infectious disease spreads rapidly to many people.
In 2003, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic took the lives of nearly 800 people worldwide.
A pandemic is a global disease outbreak.
HIV/AIDS is an example of one of the most destructive global pandemics in history.
Influenza pandemics have occurred more than once.