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Colonizing the moon

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lipi modha

on 15 January 2014

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Transcript of Colonizing the moon

Colonizing the moon ...
Medical
Lunar geology is characterized by two very different types of terrain that can be distinguished with the unaided eye. The round, dark-colored “maria” (singular mare, Latin for “sea”) contrast with the light-colored “highlands.” Together they form the “man in the moon” or “rabbit in the moon” visible from Earth. The highlands are aptly named, for they are higher in elevation than the maria. They are also more heavily cratered than the relatively smooth maria. This is a reflection of the age of the two surfaces – the highlands are much older and have had more time to accumulate craters. Radioactive dating of lunar samples of both types of surface tell the same tale as the cratering record: rocks from the highlands are mostly around 4 billion years old, with the oldest being about 4.4 billion years, while maria rocks date from 3.1 to 3.8 billion years old, about the same as the oldest terrestrial rocks we’ve found.
Geology
Wouldn't it be cool to be able to live, vacation and work on the moon?
Let's say we did want to colonize the moon. There are some basic needs that the moon colonists would have to take care of if this were any sort of long-term living arrangement. The most basic fundamentals include:
Breathable air
Water
Food
Pressurized shelter
Power
Growing of plants is possible in experimental conditions. To develop a very simple sealed growth chamber that can support germination over a 5-10 day period in a spacecraft on the Moon. Filter paper with dissolved nutrients inside the container can support ~100 seeds of Arabidopsis and 10 seeds each of basil and turnips. Upon landing on the Moon a trigger would release a small reservoir of water wetting the filter paper and initiating germination of the seeds. The air in the sealed container would be adequate to for more than 5 days of growth. No additional air supply or air processing would be necessary. The seedlings would be photographed at intervals with sufficient resolution to compare with growth in Earth controls. We would use the natural sunlight on the moon as the source of illumination for plant germination as a first ISRU (in situ resource utilization) demonstration.

Ecosystem
The moon's crust is made up of two main types of rocks that are anorthosite and basalt. Anorthosite is light in colour as it is made up of a light-coloured mineral called plagioclase feldspar. Basalt on the other hand is dark in colour as it contains the iron-bearing minerals pyroxene, olivine as well as ilmenite, along with volcanic glass.
Rocks and minerals
Benefits of growing plants on moon
plant growth kits
Experimental germination chamber
For igniting a food chain.
The resources on the planet earth are on the verge of exhaustion ,so we need to find an alternative source for our survival, experimenting on moon for the plant growth can further help us enhance our living on the moon.
To boost the fertility and plant holding capacity of the soil.
food chain
Basalt
Anorthosite
Minerals contained for the growth of plants
Habitat
Temperature
Temperatures on the moon are very hot in the daytime, about 100 ºC. At night, the lunar surface gets very cold, as cold as minus 173 degrees C.
This wide variation is because Earth’s moon has no atmosphere to hold in heat at night or prevent the surface from getting so hot during the day. Daytime on one side of the moon lasts about 13 and a half days, followed by 13 and a half nights of darkness.
A single "day" on the moon lasts about 28 Earth days, meaning the lunar daytime is nearly two Earth weeks long.
the moon does not have seasons like Earth does. However, because of the tilt, there are places at the lunar poles that never see daylight..
The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter measured temperatures of minus 396 F (minus 238 C) in craters at the southern pole and minus 413 F (minus 247 C) in a crater at the northern pole. That is the coldest temperature ever recorded in the solar system, colder even than Pluto. Scientists think water ice may exist in those dark craters that are in permanent shadow.

Settlements
Underground colonies
Some suggest building the Lunar colony underground, which would give protection from radiation and micrometeoroids. This would also greatly reduce the risk of air leakage, as the colony would be fully sealed from the outside except for a few exits to the surface.
The construction of an underground base would probably be more complex; one of the first machines from Earth might be a remote-controlled excavating machine. Once created, some sort of hardening would be necessary to avoid collapse, possibly a spray-on concrete-like substance made from available materials.[73] A more porous insulating material also made in-situ could then be applied. Rowley & Neudecker have suggested "melt-as-you-go" boring machines that would leave glassy internal surfaces.[74] Mining methods such as the room and pillar might also be used. Inflatable self-sealing fabric habitats might then be put in place to retain air. Eventually an underground city can be constructed. Farms set up underground would need artificial sunlight. As an alternative to excavating, a lava tube could be covered and insulated, thus solving the problem of radiation exposure.

Recreation
An Extraterrestrial architectural project focussed specifically upon the emerging industry of Lunar Tourism. Through this extreme design scenario in the most extreme of physical conditions, we are challenging the possibilities for the future of additive manufacturing and robotics in the field of architectural construction. This in turn, has allowed us to explore the boundaries of architectural design on a separate celestial body, in contrast to the exclusively engineered functionality of all previous space constructions to date.

Focussing on Lunar Tourism, we have re-developed the design principles taken for granted in earth bound schemes, tailoring all design elements to the lunar environment and the experiential expectations of wealthy untrained clients. Thus encouraging inhabitants to become one with the building through interaction with unique and challenging solutions to ordinarily mundane processes, made possible by the difference in gravity, atmosphere and heat on the lunar surface.

Furthermore, we aim to define the meaning of lunar architecture in the physical realm and through the reliance upon 3D printing and robotics in the theoretical realisation of our design, examine the role of the architect in this automated future.
Living conditions
Oxygen : it available in abundance in the soil which can be harvested using heat and electricity.
Water : There's now some evidence that there may be water, in the form of buried ice that has collected at the south pole of the moon. .If water isn't available on the moon, it must be imported from Earth. One way to do that would be to ship liquid hydrogen from the earth to the moon, and then react it with oxygen from the moon's soil to create water.
Food : it must be created by the plants that are grown experimentally or it must be exported from the Earth which is practically impossible because a person eats an average of 450 pounds a year
Power : it is found in abundance but we should know how to harness it
Engineering
Power on the moon is an interesting challenge. It would probably be possible to manufacture solar cells on the moon, but sunlight is available only part of the time. As mentioned previously, hydrogen and oxygen can react in a fuel cell to create electricity. Nuclear power is another possibility, using uranium mined on the moon.
Nuclear power

The claim of occurrence of uranium on the moon suggests that A nuclear fission reactor might fulfill most of a Moon base's power requirements. With the help of fission reactors, one could overcome the difficulty of the 354 hour Lunar night. According to NASA, a nuclear fission power station could generate a steady 40 kilowatts, equivalent to the demand of about eight houses on Earth. the reactor being buried below the Moon's surface to shield it from its surroundings; out from a tower-like generator part reaching above the surface over the reactor, radiators would extend into space to send away any heat energy that may be left over.
Radioisotope thermoelectric generators could be used as backup and emergency power sources for solar powered colonies.

Solar energy
Solar energy is a possible source of power for a Lunar base. Many of the raw materials needed for solar panel production can be extracted on site. However, the long Lunar night (354 hours) is a drawback for solar power on the Moon's surface. This might be solved by building several power plants, so that at least one of them is always in daylight. Another possibility would be to build such a power plant where there is constant or near-constant sunlight, such as at the Malapert mountain near the Lunar south pole, or on the rim of Peary crater near the north pole. A third possibility would be to leave the panels in orbit, and beam the power down as microwaves.
The solar energy converters need not be silicon solar panels. It may be more advantageous to use the larger temperature difference between sun and shade to run heat engine generators. Concentrated sunlight could also be relayed via mirrors and used in Stirling engines or solar trough generators, or it could be used directly for lighting, agriculture and process heat. The focused heat might also be employed in materials processing to extract various elements from Lunar surface materials.

Helium-3
(He-3) is a light, non-radioactive isotope of helium with two protons and one neutron. The abundance of helium-3 is thought to be greater on the Moon though still lower in quantity , than the solar system's gas giants
A second-generation approach to controlled fusion power involves combining helium-3 (32He) and deuterium (21H). This reaction produces a helium-4 ion (42He) (like an alpha particle, but of different origin) and a high-energy proton (positively charged hydrogen ion) (11p). The most important potential advantage of this fusion reaction for power production as well as other applications lies in its compatibility with the use of electrostatic fields to control fuel ions and the fusion protons. Protons, as positively charged particles, can be converted directly into electricity, through use of solid-state conversion materials as well as other techniques. Potential conversion efficiencies of 70% may be possible, as there is no need to convert proton energy to heat in order to drive a turbine-powered electrical generator

Rickets
Since moon does not receive enough sunlight , are followed by
13 and half nights of darkness, we can assume that the following diseases are possible.....
Rickets :
vitamin D is produced by the body in response to sunlight. Vitamin D is essential for strong bones because it helps the body use calcium from the diet. Traditionally, vitamin D deficiency has been associated with rickets. The symptoms are:
• Delayed growth
• Pain in the spine, pelvis and legs
• Muscle weakness
• Bowed legs
• Thickened wrists and ankles


Osteomalacia
Osteomalacia: it is a disease seen in adults due to
Having very little exposure to sunlight.The symptoms
are:
• Decreased muscle tone
• Weakness in your arms and legs
• Reduced ability to get around
• A waddling gait
• Pain in legs , ribs , lower spine , pelvis and hips.


Hypothermia
Due to severe temperatures at night time
i.e. -173ºC, it can cause:
Hypothermia: is defined as a decrease in the core body temperature to at least 95 degrees F.
It occurs when the heat loss is greater than the metabolic and heat production.



Frostbite
Frostbite is a thermal injury to the skin, which can result from prolonged exposure to moderate cold or brief exposure to extreme cold. The body areas most prone to frostbite are the hands, feet, nose, ears and cheeks.
Hope you enjoyed and appreciated the creative idea of Lipi , Shraddha , Rutvi k. and Nidhi.. ;)
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