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TKT

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Alejandra Aburto

on 3 September 2015

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Transcript of TKT

TKT
Unit 19
Identifying and selecting aims
UNIT 21
PLANNING AN INDIVIDUAL LESSON OR A SEQUENCE OF LESSONS
UNIT 20
Identifying different components of a lesson plan
UNIT 22
UNIT 23
CONSULTING REFERENCE RESOURCES TO HELP IN LESSON PREPARATION
Aim:
what we want learners to learn or be able to do at the end of the lesson.
May focus on grammatical structure, function, or even pleasure
Appropriate aim: What do my learners already know? What do they need to know?
Main aim: most important thing we want learners to achieve.

Subsidiary aims: language or skills learners must be able to use.

Stage aims: particular purpose of each stage.

Personal aims: what we would like to improve or focus on in our teaching.
Aims are not the same as procedures.

Aims should be specific.
IMPORTANT
Lesson plan: helps us to think what we are going to teach. Guides us.
Components
Class profile
Timetable fit
Main aims
Subsidiary aims
Stage aims
Personal aims
Assumptions
Anticipated problems
Possible solutions
Teaching aids
Procedures
Timing
Interaction patterns
Homework
IMPORTANT
Variety
Differentiation activities
Keep it simple
It is divided in: background and procedure
Planning an individual lesson
How to achieve aims.
Introduce grammatical structures.
Procedures.
Connection between aims and procedures.
Materials
SEQUENCE OF LESSONS
Number of related lessons that develop knowledge and / or language skills over a period of time
INDIVIDUAL LESSONS
Questions
Procedures (order)
SEQUENCE OF LESSONS
Scheme of work:
best way to cover school syllabus or coursebook in the time available. Include variety in the lessons

Detailes or not detailed...
KEY CONCEPTS
Pace
Interaction Patterns
Skill
Level of difficulty
Content
Mood
Exciting or calming activities
CHOOSING ASSESSMENT ACTIVITIES
ASSESSMENT
Collecting information about learners´performance, progress, or attitudes in order to make judgements about their learning.


DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FORMAL AND INFORMAL ASSESSMENT
Cloze test
Gap fill
Jumbled sentences
Sentence transformation
Proofreading
Multiple choice questions
True / False
Information transfer
Matching
sequencing
Dictation
Summary writing
Guided writing
Interview
Information - gap activity
PORTFOLIO
Easy to integrate into teaching and learning.
Are inclusive
Are informative
Are developmental
Are reflective
KEY CONCEPTS
Assessment criteria
Amount of informal assessment
Assess motivation and effort with observation.
Keep record of informal assessment
REFERENCE RESOURCES
All the sources of information about language and about teaching that we can refe to for help in lesson preparation.

Reference materials (dictionaries and grammar books)
Books, articles, magazines.
Supplementary materials in a coursebook (phonemic chart, lists)
Websites
Advanced learners´ dictionaries.
Bilingual dictionaries
Monolingual dictionaries
Wide range of special dictionaries.
Checking the form and use of grammatical structures.
Checking the spelling pronunciation and use of lexical items.
Developing your own understanding language
Anticipating learner´ difficulties
Finding out how to use the material in your coursebook.
UNIT 24
SELECTION AND USE OF COURSEBOOK MATERIAL.
Coursebook Materials
Materials in a coursebook package that we use in the classroom.

Students´s book
Teacher´s book
Audio/ Video recordings
Workbook or activity book
CD - ROM
Using all of it?
QUESTIONS...
STRATEGIES:
Extending material
Shortening material
Changing methodology
Changing level of material
Reordering material
Making use of all the resources in the book
UNIT 25
SELECTION AND USE OF SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS AND ACTIVITIES
Supplementary materials
Books and other materials we can use in addition to the coursebook
Reasons
Replace unsuitable material
Provide missing material
Provide suitable material for specific needs
Give learners extra language
Add variety to teaching
EXAMPLES
Class library books
Skills practice books
Teacher´s resource books /downloadable worksheets.
DVDs
Language practice books
Electronic materials
Games
UNIT 26
SELECTION AND USE OF TEACHING AIDS
AIDS
Resources and equipment available to us int he classroom, as well as the resources we can bring to the classroom.
Board
OHP
CD player
Computer
Language laboratory
Flashcards
Realia
Puppets
Charts
The teacher
UNIT 27
USING LANGUAGE APPROPRIATELY FOR A RANGE OF CLASSROOM FUNCTIONS
Classroom Functions
Different exponents according to context, purpose, and needs.
Formality or informality.
Getting learners´ attention
Instructing
Modelling
Encouraging
Nominating
Prompting
Language should be graded.
Sequenced
Logical
Chunks by hearing them again, and again.
UNIT 28

Identifying the functions of learners´language
Purpose for which learners´use language in the classroom.
Greeting, explaining, suggesting, checking instructions, negotiating, etc.
Learners need a wide range of exponents.
Learn exponents as language chunks.
Teachers modelling.
UNIT 29

Categorising learners´mistakes
Errors or slips.
Error in accuracy and appropriacy.
Examples...
Oral or written.
Learners can lose motivation if we correct every mistake.
Use correction code. (Rubrics)
We identify and categorise mistakes to correct them.
Mistakes can be a very positive aspect of learning.
Some mistakes matter mosre than others.
UNIT 30
TEACHER ROLES
Teachers need to behave in different ways at different stages of the lesson.
Adopt roles depending on approach, learning styles, and needs.
Planner
Manager
Monitor
Facilitator
Diagnostician
Language resource
Assessor
Rapport builder
Roles need to be appropriate.
Roles can be adapted.
UNIT 31
GROUPING LEARNERS
Interaction patterns.
Depend o learning styles and stage of the lesson.
Whole class.
Open pairs
Closed pairs
Mingles
Some classroom problems can be solved with the correct interaction patterns.
UNIT 32
CORRECTING LEARNERS
ORAL CORRECTION:
Time lines
Finger correction
Gestures / Facial expressions
Echo correcting
Identifying the mistake
Delayed correction
Peer and self - correction
Ignoring errors
Reformulating
Recasting
WRITTEN CORRECTION:
Using a code
UNIT 33

GIVING FEEDBACK
Feedback: giving information to someone about their learning or showing them that you have understood what they have said.
Purposes: Motivate, encourage learner autonomy, and help learners understand.
Examples...
Feedback from students to teachers.
Formal or informal feedback
Full transcript