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Transcript of TKT
Identifying and selecting aims
PLANNING AN INDIVIDUAL LESSON OR A SEQUENCE OF LESSONS
Identifying different components of a lesson plan
CONSULTING REFERENCE RESOURCES TO HELP IN LESSON PREPARATION
what we want learners to learn or be able to do at the end of the lesson.
May focus on grammatical structure, function, or even pleasure
Appropriate aim: What do my learners already know? What do they need to know?
Main aim: most important thing we want learners to achieve.
Subsidiary aims: language or skills learners must be able to use.
Stage aims: particular purpose of each stage.
Personal aims: what we would like to improve or focus on in our teaching.
Aims are not the same as procedures.
Aims should be specific.
Lesson plan: helps us to think what we are going to teach. Guides us.
Keep it simple
It is divided in: background and procedure
Planning an individual lesson
How to achieve aims.
Introduce grammatical structures.
Connection between aims and procedures.
SEQUENCE OF LESSONS
Number of related lessons that develop knowledge and / or language skills over a period of time
SEQUENCE OF LESSONS
Scheme of work:
best way to cover school syllabus or coursebook in the time available. Include variety in the lessons
Detailes or not detailed...
Level of difficulty
Exciting or calming activities
CHOOSING ASSESSMENT ACTIVITIES
Collecting information about learners´performance, progress, or attitudes in order to make judgements about their learning.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FORMAL AND INFORMAL ASSESSMENT
Multiple choice questions
True / False
Information - gap activity
Easy to integrate into teaching and learning.
Amount of informal assessment
Assess motivation and effort with observation.
Keep record of informal assessment
All the sources of information about language and about teaching that we can refe to for help in lesson preparation.
Reference materials (dictionaries and grammar books)
Books, articles, magazines.
Supplementary materials in a coursebook (phonemic chart, lists)
Advanced learners´ dictionaries.
Wide range of special dictionaries.
Checking the form and use of grammatical structures.
Checking the spelling pronunciation and use of lexical items.
Developing your own understanding language
Anticipating learner´ difficulties
Finding out how to use the material in your coursebook.
SELECTION AND USE OF COURSEBOOK MATERIAL.
Materials in a coursebook package that we use in the classroom.
Audio/ Video recordings
Workbook or activity book
CD - ROM
Using all of it?
Changing level of material
Making use of all the resources in the book
SELECTION AND USE OF SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS AND ACTIVITIES
Books and other materials we can use in addition to the coursebook
Replace unsuitable material
Provide missing material
Provide suitable material for specific needs
Give learners extra language
Add variety to teaching
Class library books
Skills practice books
Teacher´s resource books /downloadable worksheets.
Language practice books
SELECTION AND USE OF TEACHING AIDS
Resources and equipment available to us int he classroom, as well as the resources we can bring to the classroom.
USING LANGUAGE APPROPRIATELY FOR A RANGE OF CLASSROOM FUNCTIONS
Different exponents according to context, purpose, and needs.
Formality or informality.
Getting learners´ attention
Language should be graded.
Chunks by hearing them again, and again.
Identifying the functions of learners´language
Purpose for which learners´use language in the classroom.
Greeting, explaining, suggesting, checking instructions, negotiating, etc.
Learners need a wide range of exponents.
Learn exponents as language chunks.
Errors or slips.
Error in accuracy and appropriacy.
Oral or written.
Learners can lose motivation if we correct every mistake.
Use correction code. (Rubrics)
We identify and categorise mistakes to correct them.
Mistakes can be a very positive aspect of learning.
Some mistakes matter mosre than others.
Teachers need to behave in different ways at different stages of the lesson.
Adopt roles depending on approach, learning styles, and needs.
Roles need to be appropriate.
Roles can be adapted.
Depend o learning styles and stage of the lesson.
Some classroom problems can be solved with the correct interaction patterns.
Gestures / Facial expressions
Identifying the mistake
Peer and self - correction
Using a code
Feedback: giving information to someone about their learning or showing them that you have understood what they have said.
Purposes: Motivate, encourage learner autonomy, and help learners understand.
Feedback from students to teachers.
Formal or informal feedback