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Transcript of Germany 1918-1945
How and why did the Nazis come to power?
To be able to answer this question we must be able to undertand:
What went wrong with the Weimar Republic and was it doomed from the start?
Before the outbreak of the first world war in 1914, germany was had a strong economy and a increasing empire. The government consited of The Kaiser(wilhem II), a Chancellor and the Reistag(which had little power at that time. Germany had a huge industry and was plentiful in natural resources and fertile farmland. Urban areas consited of the working and middle classes, whereas people in rural areas were mostly poor. The people were obedient amd educated, they were also very patriotic and proud of the Empire. This Presentation will explain what went wrong with the Weimar Republic, how Hitler gained overall power in Germany and what life was like in Nazi controlled Germany.
Hitler's rise to power.
The German military surrendered and an armistice was signed
Spartacist uprising - Jan 1919-April 1919. Ebert allowed Freikorp to attack the Spartacist to end the revolt, eliminating their leaders: Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht.
Extreme - Communism
Extreme - Facism
Wealthy keep what they earn.
Wealth redistrubuted through tax
Germany was forced to sign the Treaty of Versailles, June 1919.
March 1920, Kapp Putsch, Dr Kapp attempted to take power in Berlin. The workers went on strike, the Freikorps found they could not govern Germany.
Year of crisis, D.I.S.P.H
Stresemann ends passive resistance by promising to pay off reparations and in november he introduces a new currencythe Rentenmark) to end the Hyperinflation.
Treaty of Versailles
-Germany had to admit it was responsible for the great war.
-Germany had to pay £6600 million in compensation for damage caused by the war.
-Germany's army was limited to 100,000 men. There was to be no conscription.
-Germany lost territory, the Alsace Lorraine was given back to France.
-The union between Germany and Austria was forbidden.
-Germany lost it's empire and it's colonies.
-Germany was allowed to have tanks, submarines,or military aircraft, and their navy was restricted to only 6 battleships.
In 1922 Germany said it could afford to pay the second reparation installment. So in 1923, French and belgian troops invaded the Ruhr, in order to take it's resources. The German workers replied with 'passive resistance' (strikes and non-co-operation). The German government printed more money to pay the workers, the german economy collapsed, resulting in Hyperinflation.
Defaulted- Germany failed to pay reparations.
Invaded- France/Belgian invaded the Ruhr for resources.
Strikes- German workers went on strike to protest.
Printed- German government printed more money.
Hyperinflation- Too much money in the system.
1923, French and Belgian occupation of the Ruhr
Money became almost worthless. Stresemann called off passive resistance, promising to pay reparations. In november he introduced the rentenmark to end the inflation. German industry began to revive and unemployment fell. He then began to restore Germany's position by co-operating with the allies. In 1924 he negotiated the Dawes plan where germany would borrow money to pay the repartions.Stresemann also improved Gremany's international relations by introducing the locanno treaty and joining the League of Nations.
Stresemann introduced the Dawes plan to help pay the repartions.
1925 - accepted Germany's 1919 western frontiers, and said changes in the east would only be by negotiation.
In 1920, the NSDAP (nazi party) was formed.
Hitler replaced Anton Dexler and became the leader of the Nazi Party.
The Spartacist revolt of 1919 in Berlin forced the Government to move to Weimar to draw up a new democratic constitution for Germany. The new Weimar constitution gave the vote to all people over the age of 20. Article 48 of the constitution gave the president emergancy powers to rule by decree without the Reichstag.
Many Germans were angry at the treaty of versailles. They blamed the new government for signing it, and referred to them as the november criminals who 'stabbed them in the back'.
the Nazis had over 50,000 members
Ernst Rohm became the leader of the SA, and helped the Nazis gain funding from the army.
November,1923, Munich Putsch. Hitler decided to march to Berlin to overthrow the Weimar government.
April 1924, Hitler was sentanced to 5 years in prison.
During his 9 months in Prison he wrote the Mein Kampf.
The Golden Years
Hitler set up the SS(Schutz Staffel)
Hitler appointed Joseph Goebbles as the head of the Nazi party propaganda.
The Nazi party had just over 10,000 members.
Stresemann died and the Wall Street Crash ended all loans from the US of A.
Heinrich Himmler became the Head of the SS, Hitlers personal bodygaurds.
Germany's Economy was booming, Germany's culture and entertainment had never been greater. The support of extreme wingned parties declined. As a result the Nazis did badly in the elections from 1924-1930. Hitler re-launched the Nazi party in 1925. There were weaknesses in the economy for example industries were based on foriegn loans and investments. In 1929, when the wall street crash stoped loans from america the weaknesses in the german economy were revealed. German industies fell into depression. Unemployment rose from just under 2 million in 1929 to over 6 million by 1932.It was this that gave Hitler and the Nazis to achieve power.
Political confusion and economic crisis led many conservative Germans to turn to extreme right wing political parties. During this perioid there was a growth in communisn which worried wealthy industries, therefore they began to give funds to the Nazis. The Nazis rise was also helped by the SA, which numbered about 500,000 in 1932.
In september the Nazis won an increase of seats in the Reichstag, from 12 to 107.
The Nazi Party was the largest party of the Reichstag with 230 seats.
30 jan,Hitler is appointed Chancellor.
February, the reichstag fire, the Nazis blammed this on the communists to gain control.
May, trade unions are banned.
July, other political parties are banned.
Rearmament begins in secrecy.
June, The night of the long Knives - the SA and it's leader are eliminated.
Aug, President Hindenburg dies, Hitler becomes the Fuhrer of germany(the president, chancellor and master of arms roled into one). the army swears an oath of loyalty to Adolf Hitler.
The Nazis claimed they had the answers to the problematic Weimar Republic. They said that the Weimar government was weak and that Hitler was a strong leader, the Nazis would create jobs for the unemployed and that the SA would take care of the communists. In Jan 1933, Hindenburg sees no other option but to appoint Hitler Chancellor. Von Papen was to unpopular and von Schliecher cannot lead the Reichstag without the majority.
League of nations
In February 1933 the Reichstag building was burnt to the ground. Van der Lubbe, a dutch communist was suspected of starting the fire. The Nazis used this to blame the communists and gain power. He did this by saying that the Reichstag was an attack from the communists, therefore their leaders were rounded up and Hindenburg agrees to pass the enabling act in march 1933. this allowed the Nazis to pass laws without the consent of the reichstag, this gave Hitler power to rule by decree for four years. Hitler quickly used this power to overthrow the Weimar democracy, effectively removing ALL opposition.
However Hitler still faced oppisition from the more millitant wing of the SA, including their leader, Ernst Rohm. In June 1934, Hitler orderred the night of the long knives, in which the SS, with some army help, executed Rohm and SA Leaders. This reassured the army generals and, when President Hindenburg died in August, they supported Hitler by swearing an oath to him when he became Fuhrer.
Rearmament gave employment to many, as did re-introduction of conscription - increasing the army up to 1.4 million.
The Reich labour law makes working compulsary for all men aged 18-25 for six months.
SS had risen to over 200,000 members.
Nuremburg laws removed german citizenship from all Jews.
World War II breaks out.
Unemployment fallen to 100,000
joining the Hitler youth becomes compulsary.
Propaganda, Censorship and the Police State.
Nazi control over Germany was governed by a dictatorship. The terror campaign was carried out by the Gestapo(secret police) and the SS. Both were controlled by Himmler. The Nazis used many methods of terror were used to keep the German people in line. For example they used Informers to gather information on people were disloyal to Nazis, they conducted mass arrests to intimidate potential leaders and the SS ran concentration camps. The Nazis used censorship and propaganda to isolate opponents and gain support. These examples were directed by Goebbles: Cheap radios were produced, Nuremburg rallies reflecting the Nazis idealology were shown in cinemas, Literature that conflicted with Nazi ideas were burned, Loudspeakers were placed in public areas so everyone could hear the Nazi views and Newspapers were controlled by the Nazis who would censor most information, personal letters were censored before being sent.
Kristallnacht(night of broken glass) attacks on jews and their property by the SS, encouraged by Goebbles.
The Nazis tried to control women and their role, to make sure they played a part in creating an Aryan Master race. Nazi policies for women were based the 'three ks' [kinder(children), Kirche(kitchen) and Kuche(church)]. The Nazis believed that women were intended to be passive housewives and mothers. If a women did work outside the home it should be related to their natural roles, such as cleaning, cooking, nursing or social work. The Nazis promoted housewifery and motherhood through these policies: Interest free loans when they took time of work to have children, employers and labour exchange were encouraged to give all jobs to men, introduction of the motherhood cross system where a mother would earn a meedal depending on the amount of children she has.
Goring was ordered to get Germany ready for war, by preparing a for year plan.
Hitler youth law, hitler youth was just as important as school and family.
The Nazis wanted to control young people to ensure they filled 'proper' adult roles, and gave support to the Nazis in the future. In 1939 it was cumpolsary for children to join the Hitler youth. There was enforced propaganda and censorship throughout schools in germany. There were thousands of young people who opposed Nazi ideas and actions.
Germany Surrenders and World War II ends.
Treatment of ethnic minorities.
The Nazis were racist and believed the aryan race created culture and therefore superior to all other races.
All non-aryan groups were none as sub-human(untermenschen) jews, blacks, slavs, and gypsies were seen as destroyers of cultures. In April 1933, SS and SA were ordered to boycott jewish shops. Hitler then passed laws to sack Jews from the civil service and education. In November 1938, Kristallnacht(night of broken glass) saw attacks on jews by SS and SA members. When war broke out jews were rounded up and sent to death camps where they were exterminated in the Holocaust.