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Chapter 16 - School Effectiveness and Reform
Transcript of Chapter 16 - School Effectiveness and Reform
in the United States
Imperatives to Improve
Characteristics of Effective Classrooms and School
Effective Schools Research
Characteristics of Successful School Reforms
Scott & Collin
- Concern about American schools largely focuses on the need to bolster the nations competitiveness economically by improving student performance and teaching work-related skills.
- Several major national reports and studies have suggested that American students are leaving school unprepared to participate in the economic world.
- Another major area of concern is improving the performance of economically disadvantaged students in order to make educational outcomes more equitable. Disadvantaged students include:
Concentrated rural poverty
- The push for educational effectiveness has produced hundreds of research studies and thousands of discussion papers/improvement plans. These studies have been guided to determine the characteristics of effective classroom teaching and effective schools.
Direct Instruction and Explicit Teaching
Explicit Comprehension Instruction
Cognitive Instruction for Low Achieving Students
- Effectiveness is often determined by outstanding student achievement. For example, Ronald Edmonds and others described an effective school as having 7 characteristics.
- Curriculum Alignment is a major factor that is believed to contribute to school effectiveness. It is defined the coordination of instructional planning, methods, materials, and testing.
- There have several successful approaches in high schools during recent years. They seek to provide personalized instruction to encompass all learners. These strategies include:
Schools within a school for low achievers
Smaller high school units in general
Adaptive problem solving
School-level focus with external support
Potential for implementation
Leadership and shared agreements
Improvement Approaches across Grade Levels or Schools
- Numerous instructional approaches have been implemented for use across several or all grade levels within a school.
-Higher-Order Thinking Skills Program
- Success for All
- Degrees of Reading Power Comprehension Development Approach
- Comer School Development Program
- Equity 2000 and Algebra Projects
- Knowledge is Power Program
- Advancement via Individual Determination Program
- Response to Intervention with Tiered Instruction
Comprehensive School Reform Programs
- These programs seek to improve most or all subject areas within a school.
- Whole-school initiatives generally reflect research-based recognition that faculty throughout the school ultimately determine whether change efforts are successful.
Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration Program
Related Efforts and Aspects Involving Educational Effectiveness
Cooperation and Participation with Business, Community, and Other Institutions
Technology in School Reform
Gifted and Talented Students
Increasing Teaching and Learning Time
- School choice plans have been advocated as a way to introduce greater flexibility and accountability into education. The basic idea is to enhance students' opportunities to choose where they will enroll and what they will study
Types of schools:
- Magnet school
- Alternative schools
- Charter schools
- Public schools
Pro's and Con's of School Choice
Systematic Restructuring and Standards-Based Reform
- Systematic improvement is reform that simultaneously addresses all or most major components in the overall system.
- When many changes are introduced at one time, they must be coherent and reinforce each other. These reforms focus on student performance, testing, instructional methods, materials, professional development. Therefore they are often referred to as standards-based reforms.
- They can happen at both state and district levels.