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Transcript of Comprehensive ESS-assessment
Methodology and first results Social Science Workshop, Los Baños
28.-30.06.2012 The Concept of Ecosystem Services Ecosystems and their functions About the Concept of Ecosystem Services Methodology and procedures ecological functions two closely related concepts:
a) „pure“ ecological functions
- Which are the processes in the system?
- Which storages, flows, dynamics are there?
- How are these processes regulated?
b) „anthropogenic“ functions of nature
- What is the utility of the natural system?
- Which benefits can society take from the system? •The concept of Ecosystem Functions is used to describe the internal functioning of the ecosystem (e.g. water cycling, nutrient (re)cycling, food web interactions).
•Ecosystem Functions form the capacity of natural processes and components to provide Ecosystem Goods and Services that satisfy human needs, directly or indirectly. The Definitions:
Ecosystem goods: physical elements that are directly or indirectly consumed by humans.
Ecosystem services: the ecological, socio-cultural, and economic benefits and values which contribute directly or indirectly to human well-being. The different types of Ecosystem Services:
•Regulating Services: Benefits obtained from regulation of ecosystem processes; e.g. flood protection, biocontrol of crop pests, climate regulation
•Provisioning Services: Goods produced or provided by ecosystems; e.g. crops, freshwater, wood
•Cultural Services: Non-material benefits from ecosystems;
e.g. recreation, aesthetics, tourism Valuation problems:
Valuations are subjective and individual
Subjective preferences of land use
Many different value systems:
Societal demands and „Lifestyle“
Ecological demands But: finding a common methodology or conception to value the characteristics and qualities of Ecosystems can provide very important tools for environmental management and decision making. How can decisions be optimized?
What component / process is economically important?
What are the costs of an input/change?
What is the contribution of an ecosystem to human well-being?
Which future scenario conditions may be suitable? What landscapes do we want to have?? There is no optimal provision of all the values; management will always be some kind of compromise and trade-off balancing!
Ecosystem Services can provide information and data needed for appropriate and sustainable balancing of interests. Methodology and Procedures About Me i visited all 7 Areas of Investigation as defined in LEGATO to get an impression of the area and to take photos from the different land use / land cover classes
i conducted one expert group valuation at each site to gain information about the degree of provision from ecosystem services in rice cropping systems, using the pictures as base for the assessment
with the assessed Information I will generate maps showing the Provision of Ecosystem Services in the different land uses of the Area of Investigation The expert group valuation vegetable plantations highly sealed surfaces low sealed surfaces grassland other agricultural land describes the presence and absence of important species or the appearance of different functional groups of species and includes all living habitat components.
On a scale from 0 to 5 - how would you rate the biodiversity in the different land cover types of the Area of Investigation? 1. Biodiversity the capacity of ecosystems to build up biological material by plants through photosynthesis and nutrient assimilation, for example the growing of a tree.
How would you rate the capacity for primary production in the landscapes? 2. Primary Production the occurrence of bees, birds, bats, moths, flies, wind, and also non-flying animals contribute to the dispersal of seeds and the reproduction of lots of plants is influencing this service. Also relevant is the floral composition in the region of interest.
How good or bad would you rate the capacity to support pollinators in the different land use systems? 4. Pollination the capacity of an ecosystem to control pests and diseases due to genetic variations of plants and animals making them less disease-prone and resistant to actions of predators and parasites. Indicators for the relevance of an ecosystem for this service are the populations of biological disease and pest control agents
How would you rate the ability of the different land use systems to regulate pests and diseases? 5. Pest and Disease Control describes the capacity of an ecosystem to recycle nutrients, for example nitrate or phosphate. It can be estimated for example on the base of decomposition rates.
How would you judge the nutrient regulation capacity in the different land use systems? 3. Nutrient Regulation outdoor activities and tourism relating to the local environment or landscape, including forms of sports, leisure and outdoor pursuit. For example, are there areas where you are going after work to relax?
How relevant are the different land use systems for recreation and tourism? 8. Recreation and Tourism the visual quality of the landscape/ ecosystems or parts of them which influences human well-being and the sense of beauty people obtain from looking at landscapes/ecosystems. Indicators may be specific elements in the landscape you like or if there is something specific that exists only in this landscape/area.
How relevant do you think are the different land use types for landscape aesthetics? 9. Landscape Aesthetics the used freshwater, e.g. for drinking, domestic use, industrial use or irrigation. It can be described for example by the amount of withdrawn freshwater or Irrigation water volumes.
How significant would you rate the capacity of the different landscapes to provide freshwater? 7. Water Provision the cultivation of edible plants and harvest of these plants which are used for human nutrition. The relevance can be described for example by the amount of harvested crops and the corresponding yield, but also by harvest losses.
How significant would you rate the capacity of the different landscapes to produce crops 6. Crop Productivity the values that humans place on the maintenance of historically important (cultural) landscapes and forms of land use (cultural heritage). Indicators can be the role of rice in local community, role for identity of land ownership & farming or the number of employees in traditional land use forms.
How significant would you rate the relevance of the different land use systems for cultural heritage and cultural diversity? 10. Cultural Heritage & Cultural Diversity The ESS-Concept
aims to help answering the questions: Areas of Investigation The Questions Anja Müller, age 26
from Kiel, northern Germany
Master student of Environmental Management
Field trip from 03.05.-14.06. in Vietnam and on the Philippines with the aim to conduct interviews and expert group valuations of Ecosystem Functions and Services
as foundation for my Master Thesis
as contribution to LEGATO WP 4.3: comprehensive Ecosystem Services Assessment 0 - 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 no relevant capacity very high relevant capacity 0 - 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 no relevant capacity very high relevant capacity Course of action The Investigation Area as defined in LEGATO was visualized using Satellite Pictures in A3-Format
Explanation of the different land use / land cover classes identified as relevant, using photos from the area Work Package 4.3:
Comprehensive Ecosystem Services Assessment aims:
to investigate the linkages between the different ESS and their provision in natural and human systems, i.e. the pressures on land use and their effects
to derive suggestions for an optimal land use management structure as a basis for discussion with local stakeholders
to develop an ecosystem service assessment with special reference to the provisioning service food production irrigated rice fruit plantations water bodies leisure facilities Content of my introductory presentation PH_1 PH_2 VN_1 VN_3 preliminaries first results when finished, i compared the ratings for each Ecosystem Service (either 0,1,2,3,4 or 5) - following there was a discussion revealing arguments for a high/low rating
the resulting matrix will be the foundation for creating maps about Ecosystem Services Provision in each investigation area Introduction of the 10 different Ecosystem Functions and Services which were defined as relevant for rice cropping systems in LEGATO
after having described each Ecosystem Service, the participants were asked to rate this for every significant land use / land cover class of the specific investigation area Course of action background Interviews Course of action not distinguishable due to technical reasons, but might have resulted in different valuations:
artificial/natural water bodies in general (for example canals)
more? Ranking of the valuated Functions and Services Relevance of the different land use / land cover classes in the Areas of Investigation Valuation of agricultural land uses individual valuations mean values n=25 Valuation of water bodies standard deviation uncertainties statistical significance - amount of collected data
no professional interpreter - insecurity about degree of understanding from participants
hierarchical structures - assumed influence of one on other participants
influence of mentality - unwillingness to give low values to "their" landscapes
representativeness and amount of participants
comprehensibility of the ESS-concept - only short introduction, often no previous knowledge rice cropping systems get higher values than fruits/vegetable plantations for all ESF/ESS
biodiversity highest value in rice systems!
no significant difference between fruit and vegetable plantations
landscape aesthetics as most valued cultural service Philippines Vietnam recreation and tourism less relevant than in the Philippines (except the fruit plantations)
generally lower values for biodiversity, highest rating for vegetable plantations outlook classification of land use / land cover types [defined due to technical feasibility of classification] incorporation of data from literature research
integration of investigation results from the different LEGATO-strands
using GIS-software to compute maps to visualize the Service Providing Units [SPU's] in the seven Areas of Investigation, based on satellite classification of the LULC's Thanks for your attention! Special thanks to: Jappan Benni Leo Dr. Monina Escalada Dr. KL Heong Dao Thanh Truong Dr. Ho Van Chien Bong Dong Dr. Sinh ..and everyone else who supported me during my trip!!