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CHAPTER 8: Information Processing and Memory

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Sydney Molina

on 17 February 2014

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Transcript of CHAPTER 8: Information Processing and Memory

Taking a Walk Down Memory Lane
Devin Burns and Sydney Molina

Mechanisms of Change
Robert Siegler
Encoding
: the process by which information gets stored in memory.
Automaticity
: the ability to process information with little or no effort.
Strategy construction
: the creation of a new procedure for processing information.
Metacognition
: "knowing about knowing"

In your life experiences can you think of an example of any of these Mechanisms of Change?
Memory
"The retention of information over time."
Encoding
Online Discussion Questions
1) Name something you always seem to have trouble remembering; which part of your working memory do you think is having trouble functioning when this happens, and what encoding method could you practice to improve this forgetfulness?

2) Of the three mechanisms of change proposed by Robert Siegler, which do you think is the most useful in information processing for children and why?
Information- Processing Approach
Children manipulate, monitor, and strategize about information.
Information processing improves as children get older.


What time in a child's life do you think information processing speed increases greatly?


Storage
Retrieval
Rehearsal
The conscious repetition of information over time to increase the length of time information stays in memory.
Deep Processing
Levels of processing theory
-
states that the processing of memory occurs on a continuum from shallow to deep, with deeper processing producing better memory.
Elaboration
The extensiveness of information processing involved in encoding.
Organization
The more organized information is the easier it is to remember.
Example: Chunking
Constructing Images
Another way to elaborate information being received.
What type of encoding do you most often use when you are trying to memorize things?
Long Term Memory
Holds enormous amounts of information for long periods of time.
Sensory Memory
Holds information from the world for only an instant.
Short Term Memory
Information is retained for as long as 30 seconds.
Procedural
Knowledge in the form of skills and cognitive operations.
Declarative
Conscious recollection of information.
Episodic
Retention of the "where" and "when".

Semantic
Individual's general knowledge about the world.
Theories
Network Theories
describe that how information in a memory is organized and connected.

Schema Theories
explain that when we construct information we fit it into categories that are already in our mind.

Fuzzy Trace Theory
states that there are two kinds of memory representations: verbatim memory trace and gist.
Serial Position Effect
is the principle that
recall
is better for items at the beginning and end of a list.
Encoding Specificity
Principle associations formed at the time of encoding are effective retrieval cues.


Forgetting
Cue- dependent
: lack of effective retrieval cues.
Interference Theory
: We forget because the wrong information gets in the way.
Decay Theory
: The passage of time is responsible for forgetting
Ex: A child reading the word
boat
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