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Week 6: Critical Reasoning and Common Fallacies

A look at methods of critical reasoning and corresponding fallacies
by

Ian Williams

on 11 October 2013

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Transcript of Week 6: Critical Reasoning and Common Fallacies

Critical Reasoning
and
Common Fallacies

Week 6
Reasoning from the general to the specific
Deduction
Reasoning from the specific to the general
Induction
Contextualizing an idea through definition, classification, and division
Categorization
Explaining a claim by using a similar situation in a different context
Analogy
Validating a claim by invoking authority (experts, laws, policies)
Authorization
Using emotionally charged expressions of feeling to defend an assertion
Plea
Major premise: All cats meow
Minor premise: Cordelia is a cat
Conclusion: Therefore, Cordelia meows
Enthymeme
Identify contradictions
Identify inconsistencies
Identify omissions and oversights
Expose logical absurdity
Identify oversimplifications
How to refute claims
Exercise 6.1
Be aware of:
1.Number of samples
2.Reliability of samples
Exercise 6.2
Exercise: Use an analogy to explain...
Exercise
Exercise 6.5
Exercise 6.6
Syllogism
Fallacies of Deduction
Fallacies of Induction
Fallacies of Categorization
Fallacies of Analogy
Fallacies of Authorization
Fallacies of Pleading
Fourth term
Non sequitur
Ad hominem
Denying the antecedent/affirming the consequent
Unsupported generalization
Hasty generalization
Red herring
Poisoning the well
Misreading the evidence
Slighting the opposition
Post hoc
Begging the question
Slippery slope
False Dichotomy (Either/Or)
Apples and Oranges
Faulty analogy
Tu quoque
Vague authority
Suspect authority
Appeal to fear
Appeal to the bandwagon
Appeal to ignorance
Prezi by Prof. Ian Williams
Full transcript