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Week 6: Critical Reasoning and Common Fallacies
Transcript of Week 6: Critical Reasoning and Common Fallacies
Reasoning from the general to the specific
Reasoning from the specific to the general
Contextualizing an idea through definition, classification, and division
Explaining a claim by using a similar situation in a different context
Validating a claim by invoking authority (experts, laws, policies)
Using emotionally charged expressions of feeling to defend an assertion
Major premise: All cats meow
Minor premise: Cordelia is a cat
Conclusion: Therefore, Cordelia meows
Identify omissions and oversights
Expose logical absurdity
How to refute claims
Be aware of:
1.Number of samples
2.Reliability of samples
Exercise: Use an analogy to explain...
Fallacies of Deduction
Fallacies of Induction
Fallacies of Categorization
Fallacies of Analogy
Fallacies of Authorization
Fallacies of Pleading
Denying the antecedent/affirming the consequent
Poisoning the well
Misreading the evidence
Slighting the opposition
Begging the question
False Dichotomy (Either/Or)
Apples and Oranges
Appeal to fear
Appeal to the bandwagon
Appeal to ignorance
Prezi by Prof. Ian Williams