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Transcript of Biochemistry Studybook
Introduction to Biochemistry 3 Chapters 1 2 4 5 What is biochemistry? Biochemistry is the application of chemistry to the study of biological processess at the cellular and molecular level. Organic molecules The functional groups attached to the carbon chains makes organic molecules unique Each carbon has 4 bonding sites Carbon-Hydrogen bond is non-polar Organic molecules are also called biological molecules Huge molecules
Hundreds of monomers bonded together to form the molecule Organic molecules are molecules containing Carbon and Hydrogen Chapter 2: Functional Groups What is a functional Group? A functional group is a specific group of atoms within molecules that are responsible for characteristic chemical reactions of that molecule. Alcohols
A hydroxyl group makes it a polar molecule able to form hydrogen bonding with water and itself.
Eg. Ethanol Hydroxyl Carboxylic acids
Suffix: -oic acid
Polar and can also form hydrogen bonding with water and itself. Carboxyl Aldehydes
Double bond between carbon and oxygen at the END of the molecule
Suffix: -al Carbonyl Ketones
Double bond between carbon and oxygen in the middle of the molecule
Suffix: -one Organic phosphates
A functional group consisting of a polyatomic ion.
Polar molecule attached to a non polar hydrocarbon chain making the whole molecule polar. Phosphate Amines
The amino group is attached to a hydrocarbon making the molecule polar Amino Functional Groups of Organic Compounds Chapter 4: Carbohydrates What are carbohydrates? Biochemical molecule
Carbohydrates are the primary source of energy.
Carbohydrates are also known as sugars.
Some are structural molecules.
Energy sources are based on hexose structures (6 carbons), but other exist, like pentose (5 carbons)
When in water, most sugars form a ringed structure
Carbohydrates are further divided into chemical groupings: monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysacharides. Monomer - Monosaccharide
Dimer - Disaccharide
Polymer - Polysaccharide Most common ones are glucose, fructose, and galactose.
All structural isomers of C6H12O6.
Either aldehydes or ketones, all other carbons have hydroxyl groups attached.
The position of the carbonyl group that determines the sugar. Monosaccharides Formed when two monosaccharides undergo dehydration synthesis reaction which involves removing a water molecule.
Monosaccharides, disaccharides are sweet, dissolve in water, and are called sugars.
Common examples are maltose, sucrose, and lactose. Polysaccharides are repeating units of monosaccharides - many sugars
In animals, the stored sugar is glycogen
In plants, the stored sugar is starches Disaccharides Polysaccharides Glucose has 2 primary isomers: alpha and beta.
Often referred to as blood sugar
The only difference is in the arrangement of the hydroxyl groups.
Alpha glucose is used for energy and beta is used for structure. Often referred to as fruit sugar and is found in many foods. Honey, tree fruits, berries, melons, and some root vegetables contain some of the most significant amounts of fructose.
Fructose is the sweetest of all naturally occuring carbohydrates.
Used commercially in foods and beverages for its sweet taste and low cost. It is less sweet than glucose, and is considered to be a nutritive sweetener because it has food energy. Glucose Fructose Galactose Alpha Glucose Beta Glucose * Notice the only difference is in the position of the first OH ! Maltose
Sucrose (table sugar)
Lactose Glucose + Glucose
Glucose + Fructose
Glucose + Galactose Disaccharide Made of... Animals Plants The storage sugar in animals is glycogen.
In humans it is found in the liver and muscles.
Glycogen is structurally very similar to amylopectin (alpha 1,4 with alpha 1,6 side chains) The storage sugar in plants is starches
There are two types of starches: amylose and amylopectin. Amylose
Single chained polysaccharide made of repeating alpha glucose molecules linked at the 1,4 carbons. Amylopectin
Branched chain of alpha glucose primary chain of alpha 1,4, and secondary linked chain of alpha 1,6. Chitin Structural polysaccharide in animals and fungi
The main component of the cell wall of fungi, also present in the exoskeletons of arthropods such as crustaceans, and insects.
Human body cannot break it down
Structural polysaccharide with nitrogen containing fuctional groups attached Structural polysaccharide in plants
Cell walls are made of cellulose
Beta 1,4 bonded glucose polymer alternatives
Humans and many other animals lack the enzymes to break down the beta linkages, so are unable to digest cellulose.
Certain animals can digest cellulose because of the presence of a certain bacteria in their gut. Termites, cows are examples of these animals. Cellulose What are lipids? Chapter 5: Lipids Biochemical molecule
There are many types of lipids such as triglycerides, waxes, phospholipids, and steroids.
Lipids are non-polar
Lipids are hydrophobic Functions Long-term energy source
Vitamin transit (A,D,E & K)
Component of cell membrane
Some hormones Triglycerides Typically fats and oils
They are composed of glycerol and 3 fatty acids
When a glycerol and 3 fatty acids bonds through dehydration synthesis, 3 waters are made
The bond between a glycerol and a fatty acid is called an ester bond Usually saturated
Found in animals
Solid at room temperature
Eg. butter, lard Fats Oils Usually unsaturated
Found in plants
Liquid at room temperature
Eg. vegetable oil, margarine May be monounsaturated or polyunsaturated, but never saturated
They are oils pretending to be fats
Hydrogenated - hydrogen atoms were added to unsatured fat
Becomes unstable after heated, releases free radicals
Harmful Trans Fat Triglyceride Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids Ester Bond Phospholipids Major component of all cell membranes.
Composed of a polar head, 2 non polar tails, and a phosphate group.
The structure contains a backbone glycerol, with 2 non polar fatty acids and a polar phosphate group.
The fatty acids tails are hydrophobic.
The phosphate group end of the molecule is hydrophilic because of the oxygens with all of their pairs of unshared electrons.
This makes phospholipids soluble in both water and oil. Phosphate group - polar head
Hydrophilic Glycerol - back bone Fatty acids - 2 non-polar tails
Hydrophobic Waxes A long chained alcohol attached to a fatty acid
Non-polar Steroids In the form of a ringed carbon
Eg. cholesterol, testosterone, estrogen, vitamin D + Alcohol Fatty acid -> wax + water Cholesterol Molecules containing an amino group, a carboxylic acid group and a R group.
Building blocks of protein.
They can be linked together in varying sequences to form different proteins. Chapter 6: Proteins Amino Acids What are proteins? Biochemical molecule.
Used for structure and cell repair.
One or more polypeptides.
The shape of the protein determines its function.
When the shape of the protein is altered, the protein no longer performs its function.
Permanent alteration of the shape is called denaturation. Caused by extreme heat. Enzymes All enzymes are proteins
The best known role of proteins in the human body is as enzymes which catalyze chemical reactions.
Enzymes carry out most of the reactions involved with metabolism. Monomer - Amino Acid
Dimer - Dipepeptide
Polymer - Polypeptide Protein Structure Primary structure: Order of the amino acids
Secondary Structure: Alph Helix or Beta pleated sheet
Tertiary structure: Final 3D structure of a single chained polypeptide. A functional protein.
Quaternary structure: More than one polypeptide chain working as one protein. It is a mix of tertiary structures. Not all proteins become Quaternary. Amino Acid Peptide Bond Biochemical molecule
Functions include DNA and RNA - genetic information, stored Chapter 7: Nucleic Acid What are Nucleic Acids? 3 Parts of a nucleotide
Pentose (5 carbon) sugar (RNA=ribose, DNA=deoxyribose)
Nitrogen containing base (Eg. Adenine, cytosine) Basic Structure of a Nucleic Acid monomer - Nucleotide Pentose Sugar Phosphate Group + + Nitrogen Containing Base Nucleotide -> Carbohydrates
Nucleic Acids Biochemistry
Study Book Building
Molecules Reaction is called Dehydration Synthesis Chapter 3:
Making and Breaking Up Polymers Remove water To make/put together Glucose + Glucose -> Maltose + Water
C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 -> C12H22O11 + H2O * When building biological molecules use dehydration synthesis! Use water to break down Reaction is called Hydrolysis Sucrose + Water -> Glucose + Fructose
C-C-O-C-C + H2O -> C-C-OH + C-C-OH * When breaking up polymers use hydrolysis! Breaking up
Molecules Index Monomers - Subunits that make up macromolecules
Dimer - two monomers bonded together
Polymers - Long chains of monomers
mer - repeating units
Mono - one
Di - two
Poly - Many Alcohol
Alpha 1,4 bond
Alpha 1,6 bond
Beta 1,4 bond
Beta pleated sheet
Breaking up polymers
Cholesterol Dehydration synthesis
Nitrogen containing base
Nucleic acid Oils
Waxes Ch 2
Ch 5 Ch 3
Ch 7 Ch 5
Ch 5 Look up the terms in the chapter indicated for definition and better understanding
You can also use the index to help you study for the terms, just test yourself then check the chapter to make sure you fully understand it! 6 7 Chapter 1: Introduction to Biochemistry Chapter 2: Functional Groups Chapter 3: Making and Breaking up Polymers Chapter 4: Carbohydrates Chapter 5: Lipids Chapter 6: Proteins Chapter 7: Nucleic Acids Hashim Imam
Susan Tian SBI 4U
March 11/2011 Test Your Knowledge Fill in the blanks
1. _____________ can be further divided into groups of monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.
2. ___________ is located in the liver and muscles in humans and is structurally very similar to amylopectin.
3. __________+__________ = Sucrose
4. __________ and ________ are forms of sugar storage in plants
5. Two _____________ molecules join together to form maltose.
6. The only difference between alpha and beta glucose is in the _________ of the ______ ________.
7. _________ is a structural polysaccharides in plants that humans cannot digest.
8. Carbohydrates are the primary source of ________.
9. Glucose, Fructose, Galactose are common ________, it is the _________ of Carbohydrates Chapter 4: Carbohydrates 1. Chemistry, Biological
3. Carbon, Hydrogen
4. Monomers, Dimers, Polymers
8. 4 Chapter 5: Lipids Mix and Match
1. Composed of a long chained alcohol to a fatty acid.
2. Soluble in oil and water, comprised of two hydrophobic “tails” and a hydrophilic head.
3. Lipids that are in the form of ringed carbons
4. Saturated, found in animals and solid at room temperature.
5. A glycerol and 3 fatty acids.
6. Hydrogenated oils pretending to be fats.
7. Non-polar, hydrophobic, functions include long term energy storage, insulation, vitamin transit, moisture retention, component of cell membrane and some hormones.
8. Unsaturated, found in plants and liquid at room temperature.
a) Triglyceride e) Wax
b) Oils f) Fats
c) Lipids g) Phospholipids
d) Trans fat h) Steroids 1. e)
8. b) True or False
1. The monomer of proteins is amino acid.
2. An amino acid contains an amino goup, a carboxylic acid group and a R group.
3. The shape of the protein determins its function.
4. A denatured protein will still perform its functions, once it returns to optimal temperature
5. All proteins become quaternary protein structures
6. A Tertiary structure is a 3D structure of a single chained polypeptide. It is a functional protein.
7. All proteins are enzymes.
8. Enzymes carry out most of the reactions involved with exercise. Chapter 6: Proteins 1. True
8. False Multiple Choice
1. The monomer of nucleic acids:
a) Monosaccharides c) Amino acids
b) Nucleotide d) Ester bonds
2. A nucleotide is made up of:
a) Pentose sugar c) Nitrogen containing base
b) Phosphate group d) All of the above
3. The main function of nucleic acids:
a) Insulation c) Stores genetic information in DNA and RNA
b) Energy storage d) Component of cell membrane Chapter 8: Nucleic Acids 1. b)
3. c) Chapter 2: Functional Groups Match the functional groups to their picture
3. Carboxyl - Ketone
6. Carbonxyl - Aldehyde a)
f) 1. c)
6. b) Chapter 1: Intro to Biochemistry Fill in the blanks
1. Biochemistry is the application of ________ to the study of ________ processess at the cellular and molecular level
2. Biological molecules are also called _________ molecules.
3. Organic molecules all contain ________ and ________ molecules.
4. _________ are the subunits that make up macromolecules, ___________ are two subunits bonded together, ___________ are long chains of subunits bonded together
5. The __________ groups attached to the carbon chains make the organicmolecules unique.
6. Organic molecules are _______ in size.
7. Carbon-hydrogen bond is ___________.
8. Each carbon has ___ bonding sites. Chapter 3: Making and Breaking Polymers Ch 1 Ch 3 Ch 2 Ch 4 Ch 5 Ch 6 Ch 7 1. Carbohydrates
3. Glucose, Fructose
4. Amylose, Amylopectin
8. Monosaccharides, Monomers True or False
1. Hydrolysis is used when building biological molecules.
2. Dehydration synthesis is used when bonding monomers into polymers.
3. Water is used during hydrolysis.
4. Water is produced During dehydration synthesis.
5. Always use dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis when making and breaking polymers of biological molecules. 1. False
6. True Answers: