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Literacy Portfolio

By: Meryl Hewitt
by

Meryl Hewitt

on 1 May 2013

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Transcript of Literacy Portfolio

History of Literacy It's All About...
Literacy! The Era of Conditioned Learning (1950-1965) Intensive-Ongoing Research Modeling Collaborative Learning
Presentations Inquiry Based Research Sharing Knowledge
Professional Development
Planning Implementation Evaluation Collecting Data
Connect teacher’s work with their students
Engage teachers in the process of learning and development Research:
Kennedy, E. & Shiel, G. (2010). Raising literacy levels with collaborative on-site profession development in an urban disadvantage school. The Reading Teacher, 63(5), 372-383. Different Types of Text Smart Boards Computers
Wikis iPads Mobi Maps Cell Phones
Multiliteracies
Pictures Blogging Magazines Guest Speakers
Interviews Books on Tape Television Movies Word Gap Access to Print Home Literacy
Connection to School and Home Family Literacy
Literate Environment
Opportunities to Read and Write
Adult-Child Conversations Reading to Youth By: Meryl Hewitt Key:
Topic Big Idea

Research Coaching

Common Core Standards

Instructional Strategies

Theories Quotes The Era of Natural Learning (1966-1975) The Era of Information Processing (1976-1985) The Era of Sociocultural Learning (1986-1995) The Era of Engaged Learning (1996-present) "The Skinnerian or strict behaviorist perspective was that learning should not be conceived as growth or development, but rather as acquiring behaviors as a result of certain environmental contingencies" (Alexander & Fox, 2004). Burrhus Fredric Skinner Noam Chomskey "His assertion was that humans emerge from the womb with a preexisting template that guides language use" (Alexander & Fox, 2004). Immanuel Kant "Kantian philosophy was significant for its distinction between the sensible world and the intelligent world as varied sourced of human knowledge" (Alexander & Fox, 2004). Lev Vygotsky "The goal of learning was no longer seen as the development of an individually held body of knowledge, but rather the creation of a mutual understanding arising in the social interaction of particular individuals in a particular context at a particular time" (Alexander & Fox, 2004). John Dewey "This era acknowledges that reading is not confined to traditional print materials but extends to the texts students encounter on a daily basis, including the nonlinear, dynamic, and visually complex materials conveyed via audiovisual media" (Alexander & fOX, 2004). Quote:
“An essential element was the provision of professional readings to enhance teachers’ content knowledge in alphabetic, comprehension, vocabulary, fluency, and writing and supporting teachers’ in combing these elements into a balanced literacy framework suitable to their context” (Kennedy & Shiel, 2010)” (Kennedy & Shiel, 2010). Instructional Strategies:
Literacy Circles,
Research Projects, Book Talks,
Comprehension: schema, inferring, questioning, synthesizing, creating images,
and determining importance Coaching Topics:
Spelling and Word Study
Writing Literature Discussions Reading Comprehension
Struggling Readers
Organizing for Literacy Instruction
RTI Common Core APPR
Technologies Assessments
Provides additional
resources for teachers on ...... Phonological Awareness Print Awareness Phonemes Phonics Alphabetic Principle Syllable Types
Vocabulary Decoding Rhyming Read Aloud
Early Childhood Learning
Encouraging Early Drawings and Writing
Oral Discussion Among Peers and Adults
Concepts of Print Joint attention Theories:
One Second of Reading, Gough (1972)
Early Reading Development, Hall and Moates (1999)
Phonological Awareness, Benita Blachman (2000) Research:
Phonological Awareness: Blachman, B.A. (2000). Phonological awareness. In M.L. Kamil, P.B., Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research: Vol. 3 (pp. 483--502). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Coaching:
Coaching teachers to utilize Road to Reading:
Sound boards, sight words,
phonetically regular words, high frequency words,
read orally in content, and dictation. Instructional Strategies:
Elkonin Boxes, Say it and Move it,
Sound Categorization by Rhyme Activities. Common Core:
Prekindergarden
Print Concepts:
1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.
a. Follow words from left to right, top to bottom, and page by page.
b. Recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by specific sequences of letters.
c. Understand that words are separated by spaces in print.
d. Recognize and name some upper /lowercase letters of the alphabet, especially those in own name.
e. Recognize that letters are grouped to form words.
f. Differentiate letters from numerals.
Phonological Awareness:
2. Demonstrate an emerging understanding of spoken words, syllables and sounds (phonemes).
a. Engage in language play (e.g. alliterative language, rhyming, sound patterns).
b. Recognize and match words that rhyme.
c. Demonstrate awareness of relationship between sounds and letters.d. With support and prompting, isolate and pronounce the initial sounds in words.
Phonics and Word Definition
3. Demonstrate emergent phonics and word analysis skills.
a. With prompting and support, demonstrate one-to-one letter-sound correspondence by producing the primary sound of some consonants.b. Recognizes own name and common signs and labels in the environment.
Fluency
4. Displays emergent reading behaviors with purpose and understanding (e.g., pretend reading). Orthographic Systems Context Word Structure
Word References Discovering Meaning Explicit Instruction
Repeated Exposure Forming Connections
Vocabulary
Letter and Word Knowledge Practice and Feedback
Depth and Breadth Vocabulary
Academic Vocabulary Content Vocabulary Quote:
“The effective vocabulary teacher builds a word-rich environment, helps students become independent word learners, uses instructional strategies that model good work-learning behaviors, provides explicit instruction for content and concept vocabulary, uses assessment matches instruction integrated , and integrates vocabulary across the curriculum” (Blachowitz & Fisher, 2011, p. 225). Research:
Blachowitz, C.L.Z., & Fisher, P.J. (2011). Best practices in vocabulary instruction revisited. In L.M. Morrow & L.B. Gambrell (Eds.), Best practices in literacy instruction (5th ed.) (pp. 224-249). New York, NY: Guilford Press. Coaching:
Collaborative Word Choice: teacher-student activities
Morphology Strategies: cognate activities
Mnemonic Strategies: personalized learning activities
Scaffolding: word maps
Root Analysis: prefix and suffix activities
Sorting Activities Common Core:
Prekindergarten
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on pre-kindergarten reading and content.
a. Identify new meanings for familiar words and apply them accurately (e.g., knowing duck is a bird and learning the verb to duck).
5. With guidance and support, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
a. Sort common objects into categories (e.g., shapes, foods) for understanding of the concepts the categories represent.
b. Demonstrate understanding of frequently occurring verbs and adjectives by relating them to their opposites ( e.g., up, down, stop,go, in, out).
c. Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at school that are colorful). d. Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs describing the same general action (e.g., walk, march, strut, prance) by acting out the meanings.
6. With prompting and support, use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts. Instructional Strategies:
Word Play, Read Aloud, Scaffold Reading, Site Words, Word Walls, Board Games, Graphic Organizers (breadth),
and Mapping words (depth).
Strategies for Unknown Words: Look - before, after, and at the word, Reason - connect what you know with what the author has written, Predict - what could the word possibly mean?,Resolve or Re-do - decide whether you know enough, should try again, or consult a reference material or expert. Quotes:
“According to these models, good readers tap their academic and nonacademic knowledge, monitor their comprehension (i.e. they are metacognitive), and pursue their goals even when confronted with challenging texts (i.e they are motivated)” (Brown, 2008, p. 539). Theories:
GRM, Pearson and Gallagher (1983)
Sociocultural Theory, Lev Vygotsky ( 1986)
Read and Response, Louis Rosenblatt (1938) Instructional Strategies:
RAP, Shared Reading, Interpreting Visual Aids (Maps,Charts,Tables,Graphs, Photos,etc.)
Inferring, Predicting, Questioning, Making Connections, Visualizing, Determining Importance,
Summarizing, Synthesizing.
While Reading: double lines underneath main ideas, single lines underneath supporting details, circle key words/terms, and jot a brief summary in the side margin (Paul, 1974) Common Core:
Grade 2
Reading Standards for Informational Text
Key Ideas and Details
1. Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why,and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.
2. Recount stories, including fables and folktales from diverse cultures, and determine their central message, lesson, or moral.
3. Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and challenges.
Craft and Structure
4. Describe how words and phrases (e.g., regular beats, alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines) supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song.
5. Describe the overall structure of a story, including describing how the beginning introduces the story and the ending concludes the action.
6. Acknowledge differences in the points of view of characters, including by speaking in a different voice for each character when reading dialogue aloud.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
7. Use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate understanding of its characters, setting, or plot.
8. (Not applicable to literature)
9. Compare and contrast two or more versions of the same story (e.g., Cinderella stories) by different authors or from different cultures.
10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories and poetry, in the grades 2–3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
Responding to Literature
11. Make connections between self, text, and the world around them (text, media, social interaction). Prior knowledge Metacognition Motivation Fluency
Text complexity Think Aloud Text structures
Building Disciplinary and World Knowledge
Reading Comprehension
Exposure to Range of Texts Engage Students in Discussion
Build Vocabulary and Language Knowledge
Observe and Assess Differentiate Instruction
Integrate Reading and Writing Coaching:
Transactional Strategies Instruction
Balanced Instruction Techniques
Gradual Release Model Strategies
Traffic Light Reading
Informative Texts Resources
Strategic and Independent
Reading Strategies Research:
Duke, N.K., Pearson, D.P., Strachan, S.L., & Billman, A.K. (2011). Essential elements of fostering and teaching reading comprehension. In Samuels, S.J., & Farstrup, A.E. (Eds.), What research has to say about reading instruction (4th ed.) (pp. 51-91). Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Research:
Lv, F., & Chen, H. (2010). A study of metacognitive-strategies-based writing instruction for vocational college students. English Language Teaching, 3(3), 136-144. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/839109339?accountid=14214 Quote:
“One of the most powerful ways for students to grow as writers is to watch you write-to observe you plan, think, compose, revise, and edit right in front of them” (Routman, 2005, p.45). Theory:
Read and Response, Louis Rosenblatt (1938) Coaching:
My Life in Seven Stories activity
Balancing Literacy activities
Metalinguistic Activities: think alouds
Modeling Strategies: explain why you read and write, let students see you struggle, and APPLY WHAT YOU DO AS A READER AND WRITER TO TEACH YOUR STUDENTS. Common Core:
Grade 3
Writing
Text Types and Purposes
3.Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
a.Establish a situation and introduce a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
b. Use dialogue and descriptions of actions, thoughts, and feelings to develop experiences and events or show the response of characters to situations.
c.Use temporal words and phrases to signal event order.
d.Provide a sense of closure.
Production and Distribution of Writing.
5.With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop5. and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grade 3 on page 38.)
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
7.Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic.
8.Recall information from experiences or gather information8. from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories.

Reading Standards for Information
Key Ideas and Details
1.Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.
2.Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea.
3.Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect. Metacognitive Skills Knowledgeable Meaningful
Choice Connecting Home and School
Think Aloud Metalinguistic Skills
Modeling: Good Readers and Writers
Integrate Prior Knowledge
Construct Revise Monitor and Adjust Question
Strategic and Active Set Goals Decision Making Skills Instructional Strategies:
Readers: Read Alouds, Shared Reading, Guided Reading, Book Reports, DEAR (Drop Everything And Read), STAR (Sit Together And Read).
Writing: Snapshot Writing, Writing Process (drafting-graphic organizers, revision strategies, editing, and final draft checklists), Free Writes, Journal Writing, Problem Solving, Research Projects. Quotes:
“Children in the 21st century need to be able to use multiple literacies to meet the informational challenges and manage the complexities of the political, economic, and technological world beyond school” (Kress, 2003).

“As teachers and researchers, we recognize that children need a new toolkit of basic skills that encompasses ways of communicating and constructing meaning that are multimodal (print, art, drama, language) and multimedial (combining different means of communication, such as the Internet and video) (Luke and Freebody, 1999; Vasquez et al., 2004). It is important to recognize that meaning may be constructed through different kinds of texts in various ways, such as moving images, spoken language, animation, graphs, and maps” (Silver, Shorey, and Crafton, 2010, p. 382). Research:
Silver, P., Shorey, M., & Crafton, L. (2010). Critical literacy in primary multiliteracies classrooms: The hurricane group. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 10(4), 379-409. Common Core:
Grade 4
Writing
Text Types and Purposes
2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
a.Introduce a topic clearly and group related informationin paragraphs and sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
b.Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.
c.Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g., another, for example, also, because).
d.Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary toinform about or explain the topic. e.Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.
Production Distribution of Writing
6.With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of one page in a single sitting.
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
7.Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic Coaching:
Text Sets Available for Teachers
Multiliteracy Bulletin Board: providing resources with
up-to-date research to utilize multiliteracies
Smart boards/Newest Technologies lessons for the classroom Instructional Strategies:
Learning Centers, Small Group Instruction, Dramatizing Stories by Illustrating their Writing, Partner Reading, Computer Workshops, Books on Tape, Interactive Smart Board, Wiki, and Mobi activities, Conducting Research Projects: internet, videos, magazines, books, pictures, maps, etc. Theories:
Multiliteracie theory is described as a design science in which curriculum and instruction are in a continuous process of being designed and redesigned based on student needs, interests, engagements, and actions during learning (New London Group, 2000)
Sociocultural Theory, Lev Vygotsky (1986) Theories:
Sociocultural Theory, Lev Vygotsky (1986)
Early Literacy Development, Hall and Moats (1999) Quote:
“Reading aloud to a child is is a critical activity in helping a child gain the knowledge and language skill that will enable good comprehend later on. Reading aloud increases background knowledge, builds vocabulary, and familiarizes children with language in book” (Hall & Moats, 1999, p. 75). Common Core:
Prekindergarten
Print Concepts:
1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.
a. Follow words from left to right, top to bottom, and page by page.
b. Recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by specific sequences of letters.
c. Understand that words are separated by spaces in print.
d. Recognize and name some upper /lowercase letters of the alphabet, especially those in own name.
e. Recognize that letters are grouped to form words.

Speaking and Listening
Kindergarten
Comprehension and Collaboration
1.Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about kindergarten topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
a.Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others and taking turns speaking about the topics and texts under discussion).
b.Continue a conversation through multiple exchanges.
c,Seek to understand and communicate with individuals from different cultural backgrounds.
2.Confirm understanding of a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media by asking and answering questions about key details and requesting clarification if something is not understood.
3.Ask and answer questions in order to seek help, get information, or clarify something that is not understood. Research:
Neumann, S.B., & Celano, D. (2001). Access to print in low-income-and middle-income communities: An ecological study of four neighborhoods. Reading Research Quarterly, 36(1), 8-26. Quote:
“If access to print is highly differentiated in our culture, it may result in differential opportunities for certain types of learning and thinking that are related to literacy development. Differences in access could influence the degree of familiarity with book language and the cognitive behaviors associated with reading, helping to explain the substantial educational differences among low- and middle- income children in beginning formal instruction” (Celano & Neuman, 2001, p.11). Coaching:
Reaching out to Project Flight and other organizations that can donate books for children to take home with them for guarantee literature in their household
Book Drives
Global Book Hour Club Instructional Strategies:
Book swap: children can come and exchange books as they please Small Group Instruction and Grand Conversations:
students can interact and converse with one another.
Family Incorporated Research Project DIBELS: Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills
Gray and Oral Reading Tests Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests
Quick Phonics Screener Qualitative Reading Inventory
Assessment
Ekwall/Shanker Reading Inventory
Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing
Annual Professional Performance Review. Research:
Kehloe, J.F. & Tenopyr, M.L. (1994). Adjustment in assessment scores and their usage: A taxonomy and evaluation of methods. Psychological Assessment, 6(4), 291-303. Quote:
“An assessment activity can help learning if it provides information that teachers and their students can use as feedback in assessing themselves and one another and in modifying the teaching and learning activities in which they are engaged” (Black, Harrison, Lee, Marshall, & William, 2004, p.10). Theory:
Blooms Taxonomy, Benjamin Bloom (1956) Common Core:
First Grade
Text Types and Purposes
1.Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or name the book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply a reason for the opinion, and provide some sense of closure.
2.Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic, and provide some sense of closure.
3.Write narratives in which they recount two or more appropriately sequenced events, include some details regarding what happened, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide some sense of closure.

Conventions of Standard English
1.Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
a.Print all upper- and lowercase letters.
b.Use common, proper, and possessive nouns.
c.Use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic sentences(e. g . ,Hehops; Wehop).
d.Use personal, possessive, and indefinite pronouns(e.g., I, me, my; they, them, their; anyone, everything).
e.Use verbs to convey a sense of past, present, and future(e.g .,Yesterday I walked home; Today I walk home; Tomorrow I will walk home).
f.Use frequently occurring adjectives.
g.Use frequently occurring conjunctions (e.g., and, but,or, so, because).
h.Use determiners (e.g., articles, demonstratives).
i.Use frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., during,beyond, toward).
j.Produce and expand complete simple and compound declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences in response to prompts.
2.Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing .
a.Capitalize dates and names of people.b.Use end punctuation for sentences.
c.Use commas in dates and to separate single words in a series.
d.Use conventional spelling for words with common spelling patterns and for frequently occurring irregular words.
e.Spell untaught words phonetically, drawing on phonemic awareness and spelling conventions. Coaching:
Coach teachers how to properly utilize assessments
Table of Specifications
Agenda Structure
Adjusting Assessment Strategies
Variety of Content Assessments Instructional Strategies:
Formative Feedback: Observations, Checklists, Daily Performance Work Samples (small group instruction, video and audio recordings, conferences). For example, observing reading skills during small group instruction.
Summative Feedback: Reporting Student Progress (letter grades, numerical grades, verbal descriptors, pass-fail, and supplemental systems). For example, test on writing abilities. Differentiated Instruction IDEA 504 Plan Assessment
Parent Involvement Working as a Team
Assisting Individual Needs
Response To Intervention Monitor and Adjust
Individual Education Plan Therapy Quote:
“Teachers need to know about their pupil’s progress and difficulties with learning so that they can adapt their own work to meet pupil’s needs-needs that are often unpredictable and that vary from one pupil to another” (Black & Wiliam, 1998). Research:
Torgeson, J.K. (2005). Recent discoveries on remedial interventions for children with dyslexia. In Snowling, M.J., & Hulme, C. (Eds.), Science of reading: A handbook (pp.521-537). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Theories:
Multiple Intelligences, Howard Gardner(1983)
Read and Response, Louis Rosenblatt (1938) Coaching:
Coach teachers how to utilize RTI
Providing Professional Development Resources
to Differentiate Instruction
Monitor and Adjust Strategies
Knowledge on support for IDEA and 504 Plans Instructional Strategies:
One-on-one Instruction, Small Group Instruction, Assess Students Formatively, Slowing Down Instruction,
Close Readings to Break Down Content, Personalized Test Space, Minimize Distractions, Arrange Seating Common Core:
Kindergarten
Key Ideas and Details
1. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
2. With prompting and support, retell familiar stories, including key details.
3. With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story.
Craft and Structure
4. Ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text.
5. Recognize common types of texts (e.g., storybooks,poems).
6. With prompting and support, name the author and illustrator of a story and define the role of each in telling the story .
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
7. With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the story in which they appear (e.g., what moment in a story an illustration depicts).
Responding to Literature
11.With prompting and support, make connections between self, text, and the world around them (text, media, social interaction). References: History:
Alexander, P.A., & Fox, E. (2004). A historical perspective on reading research and practice. In R.B. Ruddell, & N.J. Unrau (Eds.), Theoretical models and processes of reading (pp. 33-68). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Professional Development:
Allen, J. (2006). Becoming a literacy leader: supporting learning and change. Portland: Stenhouse Publishers.
Kennedy, E. & Shiel, G. (2010). Raising literacy levels with collaborative on-site profession development in an urban disadvantage school. The Reading Teacher, 63(5), 372-383.

Early Childhood Development:
Phonological Awareness: Blachman, B.A. (2000). Phonological awareness. In M.L. Kamil, P.B., Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research: Vol. 3 (pp. 483--502). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Vocabulary:
Blachowitz, C.L.Z., & Fisher, P.J. (2011). Best practices in vocabulary instruction revisited. In L.M. Morrow & L.B. Gambrell (Eds.), Best practices in literacy instruction (5th ed.) (pp. 224-249). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Blachowicz, C., & Zabroske, B. (1990). Context instruction: a metacognitive approach for at-risk readers. Journal of Reading, 33, 504-508.

Reading Comprehension:
Duke, N.K., Pearson, D.P., Strachan, S.L., & Billman, A.K. (2011). Essential elements of fostering and teaching reading comprehension. In Samuels, S.J., & Farstrup, A.E. (Eds.), What research has to say about reading instruction (4th ed.) (pp. 51-91). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Hagaman, J.L., Luschen, K. & Reid, R. (2010). The “RAP” on reading comprehension. Teaching Exceptional Children, 43(1), 22-29.Brown, R. (2008). The road not yet taken: a transactional strategy approach to comprehension instruction. The Reading Teacher 61(7), 538-547.
Pauk, W. (1974). How to study in college (3rd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Modeling:
Lv, F., & Chen, H. (2010). A study of metacognitive-strategies-based writing instruction for vocational college students. English Language Teaching, 3(3), 136-144. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/839109339?accountid=14214
Bangert-Drowns, R.L., Hurley, M.M., & Wilikinson, B. (2004). The effects of school-based writing-to-learn interventions on academic achievement: a meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 74(1), 29-58.Routman, R. (2005). Writing essentials: raising expectations and results while simplifying teaching. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Multiliteracies:
Silver, P., Shorey, M., & Crafton, L. (2010). Critical literacy in primary multiliteracies classrooms: The hurricane group. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 10(4), 379-409.
Robb, L. (2002). Multiple texts: multiple opportunities for teaching and learning. Voices from the Middle, 9(4), 28-32.


Literate Environment:
Neumann, S.B., & Celano, D. (2001). Access to print in low-income-and middle-income communities: An ecological study of four neighborhoods. Reading Research Quarterly, 36(1), 8-26.
Hall, S.L. & Moats, L.C. (1999). Straight talk about reading: How parents can make a difference during the early years. Chicago, III.: Contemporary Books. Chapter 3, Why reading to children is important, pp. 51-76.
Hart, B. & Risely, T.R. (2003, Spring). The early catastrophe: The 30 million word gap by age 3. In American Educator. Retrieved July 14, 2005 from: http://www.aft.org/pubs-reports/american educators/spring2003/catastrophe.html

Assessment:
Kehloe, J.F. & Tenopyr, M.L. (1994). Adjustment in assessment scores and their usage: A taxonomy and evaluation of methods. Psychological Assessment, 6(4), 291-303.
McKenna, M.C., Walpole, S., and Conradi, K. (Eds.). (2010). Promoting early reading: Research, resources, and best practices. New York: NY: Guilford Press.
Reynolds, C.R, Livingston, R.B., & Willson, V. (2009), Measurement and Assessment in Education (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education Incorporated.
Black, P., Harrison, C., Marshall, B., & Wiliam, D. (2004). Working inside the black box: Assessment for learning in the classroom. Phi Delta Kappa, 9-21.

Assisting Individual Needs
Torgeson, J.K. (2005). Recent discoveries on remedial interventions for children with dyslexia. In Snowling, M.J., & Hulme, C. (Eds.), Science of reading: A handbook (pp.521-537). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
Liboiron, N. & Soto, G. (2006). Shared storybook reading with a student who uses alternative and augmentative communication: A description of scaffolding practices. Child Language Teach and Therapy, 22(1), 69-95.
Wixson, K.K., & Valencia, S.W. (2011). Assessment in RTI: What teachers and specialists need to know. The Reading Teacher, 64(6), 466-469.
Fletcher, J.M. Foorman, B.R., Boudousquie, A., Barnes, Ma, A., Schatschneider, C., & Francis, d.j. (2002). Assessment of reading and learning disabilities: A research-based intervention-oriented approach. Journal of School Psychology, 40, 27-63.
Black, P. & Wiliam, D. (1998). Inside the black box: Raising the standard through classroom assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, 139-148. Research:
Alexander, P.A., & Fox, E. (2004). A historical perspective on reading research and practice. In R.B. Ruddell, & N.J. Unrau (Eds.), Theoretical models and processes of reading (pp. 33-68). Newark, DE: International Reading Association. I would have the child/children work in small groups for reading. We would discuss the reading and complete a comprehension writing activity. I would formatively assess my students by observing them and making detailed notes of their performance.
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