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Mendel and Genetics

Overview of basic genetic ideas as started by Mendel. Corresponds to Campbell and Reece chap. 14
by

Richard Huey

on 4 January 2012

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Transcript of Mendel and Genetics

Original ideas for inheritance
Basic Genetics
1) "Blending"
Kind of like yellow and blue
make green
2) "Particulate" hypothesis
discrete inherited units (genes)
Mendel agreed with particulate hypothesis
Y
OU MUST KNOW:
Terms like P, F1, F2, dominant, recessive,heterozygous, homozygous, phenotype and genotype
Difference between allele and gene
How to derive the proper gametes when working a problem
How to read a pedigree
Used pea plants to prove it.
Decided that "purple" was a dominant factor
factor = gene
gene=specific segment of DNA
that codes for a specific protein.
allele=alternate version of a gene
Law of Segregation
Inherit two alleles for a trait:
one from dad, one from mom.
These segregate (separate) during
gamete formation - one to one
cell, the other to the other cell.
Law of Segregation accounts
for Mendel's findings of a 3:1
ratio in the second generation.
Homozygous=both alleles the same
Heterozygous=alleles are different
Genotype
Phenotype
actual alleles
present
what we
see
So far, we have dealt with
monohybrid crosses-one trait
only is involved.
Can also do dihybrid crosses
where two different traits
are involved.
Law of Independent Assortment
Each pair of alleles segregates independently
of each other pair of alleles during gamete
formation.
(Must be on different chromosomes)
BUT, this is an
oversimplification
of the material
(as you will see).
factor=gene
gene=specifc
segment of DNA
allele=alternate
version of
gene
Full transcript