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Nineteenth Century Impressionism

Art History Presentation Jenny Kim and Loren Yeung
by

Loren Yeung

on 19 October 2012

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Transcript of Nineteenth Century Impressionism

French Painting Nineteenth Century Impressionism "Ironically, despite the contemporary rejection of Impressionism, it had a greater international impact in the long run than previous styles that France readily accepted" Characteristics of
Impressionism A Bar at the Folies-Bergère
Édouard Manet, 1881-1882
Oil on canvas, 0.95 x 1.30 m French Painting Rodin is the acknowledged giant of nineteenth-century sculpture. He was one of the major influences of twentieth-century sculpture. French Sculpture -Atmospheric painting of fireworks at Cremorne

- Study in light, color and form. The atmospheric effects of the cloudy night sky, contrasted with gold spots of light from the exploded rocket

- Brought to trial by the English art critic,
John Ruskin

- "a pot of paint... in the public's face"
v.s
"Art for Art's Sake" Controversial Painting - Late nineteenth-century American painting corresponds chronologically with French Impressionists
- Continued in a more Realist vein American Painting How did the term "impression" originate? Questions - Édouard Manet
- Pierre-Auguste Renoir
- Hilaire-Germaine-Edgar Degas
- Mary Cassat
- Claude Monet American Painting - John Singer Sargent - James Abbot McNeill Whistler Controversial Painting French Sculpture - Auguste Rodin By Jenny Kim and Loren Yeung - The effect of atmospheric pollution: affects light, colour, and form
- Smoke that rises from the audience

- Relation to photography: a "slice of life" / cropped view
- Sense of movement: blurred figures
- Silhouettes: flat, precisely outlined, contrasting colours. See barmaid's ribbon, lightbulbs vs pilasters, foil on bottles, woman in white

- Iconography: focus on dull, immobile barmaid vs. energy in the audience
- "Distinction between the monotony of serving at the bar and the bourgeoisie enjoying leisure time"
- Viewpoint shift in the mirror
- Women as a commodity 4th ed, p. 769 Impression: Sunrise
Claude Monet, 1873
Oil on canvas, 49.5 x 64.8 cm Bassin des Nymphéas (Water-Lily Pond)
Claude Monet, 1904
Oil on canvas, 87.6 x 90.8 cm p. 768 - 787 4th ed, p. 776-777 - Considered the first impressionist painting: the term "Impressionism" is derived from a negative review of this painting.
- Sketchily applied paint, looks unfinished

- "Broken colour": "transient effects of shifts in nature" using individual brushstrokes, breaking up light and dark, to show blurred forms, reflections separated in water, and the leisurely motion of water
- Patterns of colour rather than sharp focus

- Direct observation of nature: "plein air" (open air) painters
-Nature itself as his "model" Absinthe
Hilaire-Germain-Edgar Degas, 1876
Oil on canvas, 92.1 x 67.9 cm Dancing Lesson
Hilaire-Germain-Edgar Degas
1883-1885
Oil on canvas
39.4 x 88.4 cm 4th ed, p. 772 Galloping Horse
Eadweard Muybridge, 1878
Albumen print - Related to photography (Degas was a devoted amateur photographer)
- "Slice of life"
- Arbitrary placement of frame
- Zigzag construction (tables, booth) creates a slanted viewpoint

- Figures are "stoned"
- Stare fixedly at nothing in particular (similar to Manet's barmaid)
- Alcoholic stupor, emotional isolation, physical inertia (nothing is happening, everything is unchanged) Boating Party
Mary Cassatt, 1893 - 1894
Oil on canvas, 0.90 x 1.17 m - Influenced by photography ("Impressionist close-up")

- Slanting viewpoint: emphasizes intimacy between mother and child

- Strong silhouette of rower

- Foreshortening (both rower and child), Flattening of space
- Creates monumentality

-Japanese woodblock influence: bold planes of colour, sharp outlines, compressed spaces, obi (on rower) 4th ed, p. 774) Rouen Cathedral, West Façade, Sunlight
Claude Monet, 1894
Oil on canvas, 1.00 x 0.66 m Rouen Cathedral, the Portal and the Tower of Albane, the Morning
Claude Monet, 1894
Oil on canvas, 1.07 x 0.74 m Moulin de la Galette
Pierre-Auguste Renoir, 1876
Oil on canvas, 1.31 x 1.75 m - "Slice of life"

- Reflected light from glasses

- Separation between dancers and table

- Patterns of lights and darks, shifting shadows

- Soft, velvety brushstrokes 4th ed, p. 771 Daughters of Edward Darley Boit
John Singer Sargent, 1882
Oil on canvas, 2.21 x 2.21 m - Two of eighteen canvases of Rouen Cathedral

- Single locale under different atmospheric conditions (different lights and shadow)

- So many details dissolving into light and shadow

- Reminder that normal vision lacks sharp focus - Unlike Impressionism, form does not dissolve into light

- Sargent is known for elegant, superficial, rich portraits

- "Slice of life"

- Figures seem frozen in time

- Inner psychological tensions

- Mirror complicates relationships within the picture

- Oblique view: figures are above viewer 8 artists, 9 works Nocturne in Black and Gold
James Abbott McNeill Whistler, 1875
Oil on Oak Panel 60.0 x 47.0 cm Realism v.s Impressionism. Explain Who rejected/accepted the impressionist art and why? DO YOU LIKE IMPRESSIONISM?
WE DO!!!! Rarely responded to political events

Usually involved scenes of leisure activities, entertainment & landscape

Influenced by Japanese prints & new developments in photography

interested with more optical than social realism

Interested in the natural properties of light

Artists came from bourgeois families

Paintings rejected by the French Academy & Public

Sketchily applied & work appeared unfinished - The figure is close to the picture plane and in a narrow space.
- Expanded through the mirror, showing the back of the barmaid, her customer, and the rest of the music hall.

- Long horizontals and shorter verticals

- Brushwork and texture of the paint
- Creates reflective surfaces; see the glass bowl and bottles.
- In contrast, the round lightbulbs in the mirror are flat, without tonal variation Monument to Balzac
Auguste Rodin The Thinker
Auguste Rodin, 1881
Bronze, 58 cm high < Bronze, 281.9 x 122.5 x 104.2 cm
1898 Plaster, 3 m high >
1892-1897 - Forms in clay or wax before casting
- Mostly uses bronze
- Influenced by Italian Renaissance
- Commission for statue of Honoré de Balzac

- Conveys process of making sculpture
- Impressionist texture, blurred effect

- Disliked by the public and commissioners
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