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Postwar Europe- AP Euro EC

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eithan itaev

on 13 May 2013

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Transcript of Postwar Europe- AP Euro EC

European Stability Postwar Europe even through and after war, Europe experienced social, political and economic stability
1941= Roosevelt put out the Atlantic Charter advocating the replacement of the ineffective League of Nations
4 years later... the United Nations was born
US return to isolationism- committed to European recovery
fascism as a political movement was discredited
revanchism: desire to regain so called lost territories- major factor in European instability through interwar years Beginning of the Cold War 3 Ideas on the Causes of the Cold War:
Stalin was responsible for E vs. W hostilities
Revisionism= US was not seeking world safety for democracy but rather for American trade
Post-Revisionism= US and RS both responsible Yalta "Big Three": US, BR, RS the big three agreed on the division of GR
in the aftermath of war- it was split in 4
Soviet Union's method of governing their piece of GR: subversion of a democratic structure they pretended to support
allowed reestablishment of all non right-eing parties that existed during the Weimar
German Communist Party [KPD]--- Soviets selected Walter Ulbricht to lead it
he believed that GRs would support the KPD b/c they resented Weimar capitalist crises
Merged w/ SPD [Social Democratic Party] in 1946 - the emergence of a one-party state
May 1946= General Lucius Clay [commander of US zone] ended reparations to US Increasing Tensions Out of Europe 1941: RS & BR agreed to split Iran and leave after war
1945: when war ended- BR left; RS didn't... they demanded oil concessions
Truman heard that Soviets were sending troops into Tehran, he sent troops into the Persian Gulf- Soviets then pulled away
Stalin desired direct to Mediterranean Sea- tried intimidating Turkey in order to get it
to show he was determined, he sent troops along the sea border of Turkey
once he understood that the US would protect Turkey, he backed out
Roosevelt negotiated w/ Stalin- Truman who replaced him was not willing to cooperate
1947: American writer George Kennan wrote what would soon be called the "Long Telegram"- indicated that although the US and Soviets were cooperative, the Soviets saw the US as an enemy--- he later became the architect of US containment policy towards RS Containment and NATO containment first tested in Greece- a communist led insurgency was fighting the newly created Greek govt.
1947: BR told the US that they cannot afford to support Greece- led to Truman Doctrine
Truman Doctrine: March 1947- US policy is to support free people against subjugation by outside pressures
North Atlantic Treaty Organization [NATO] established 1949 to counter the threat posed by the millions of Soviet soldiers in E. Europe
BR, FR, CA, Denmark, Belgium, Iceland, IT, Netherlands, Portugal, and Norway also in NATO
Greece and Turkey joined 1952 Soviet Dominance of E. Europe 1944: Churchill met Stalin in Moscow
Percentages Agreement- divided various nations in E. Europe based off of spheres of influence based off of percentages
Churchill coined the term: iron curtain [split of ideology, government policy] through GR
in Yalta: BR and US got Stalin to sign Declaration of Liberated Europe- in Axis or liberated nations, govts were to be formed around democratic principles [e.g., free elections] Poland Stalin planned a govt ruled by Polish Communists
granted concession that some anticommunist Poles from London would be part of the provisional govt
1947: elections were held- Communists got 80% of the vote--- the proceeded to end any signs of a multiparty state
Soviets knew they needed to use force to keep Poland communists b/c they were hated Elsewhere Soviets wanted to gain power of smaller E. European nations
most of those small nations fell apart during war
this gave RS the upper hand [those nations wanted to revert back to older govt]
Soviets tried to establish "People's Democracies" in those nations [besides Poland]
Stalin saw the Marshall Plan as a threat to Soviet power- by taking the $$ the small nations would automatically be drawn to the capital west
this led to Stalin's attempt to assert more control
Hungary: Communists practiced "salami" tactics- intimidation and fake plots vs. non communist political leaders
1948:Hungarian Communist Party forced the Smallholder's Party [their enemy] out of existence Czechoslovakia dominated by Pres Eduard Benes in immediate postwar period- non communist, but understood that he needed to stay on good terms with the Soviets
Czechs felt like RS was their liberator; felt that the West sold them out @ the Munich Conference 1938
they desperately needed Marshall Plan monies
Bene's govt pressured when Czech Communists formed the "People's Militia"
Bene then formed a more communist govt
multiparty Czech state was ending- Communists forcibly absorbed Social Democrats
May 1948: Communists won in election and proceeded to create Soviet-like state Yugoslavia major exception to Soviet control
civil war between partisans w/ communist groups- led by Joseph Tito- against royalist Chetniks
ended w/ Tito's communists winning
Stalin didn't trust him b/c he had help from BR and US
1948: formal break between Yugoslavia and the Soviets The End of Imperialism BR wanted to maintain colonial power
US was reluctant
BR depended on US loans and when US wouldn't support colonial ventures, BR conceded
Aug 1947: India declared independence- marking the beginning of decolonization Israel 1947: BR announced they were resigning from Palestine [Israel]
UN left to determine fate
decision made to separate Palestine into Jewish and Arab territories
May 14, 1948: Israel founded
immediately met by Arab attacks- they fought them all off Egypt and Africa EG independent since 1922 but BR was still dominant there
changed when Abdul Nasser came to power
1956: Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal
BR, FR, and Israel planned surprise attack on EG b/c of that
1957: Ghana declared independence from BR
followed by Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Uganda, and Kenya
1965: Rhodesia had many BR settlers- formed white supremacist govt and ceded from BR
1980: Africans in Rhodesia rebelled and it became Zimbabwe Indonesia, Vietnam, and Algeria by 1949, Netherlands recognized Indonesian independence
FR held on for dear life w/ Algeria and Vietnam [Indochina]
nationalist movement led by Ho Chi Minh [Indochina] fought against Japan in WWII
1954: FR split Vietnam in 2- North: Communist; South: Republic dominated by US
1958: de Gaulle took office and FR and later granted Algeria its independence Creation of a European Union First stage in European Unity:
establishment of OEEC [Organization for European Economic Cooperation]- had task of managing finances from US [Marshall Plan]
OEEC also worked to lower tariffs and trade barriers
Second Stage:
1951: creation of ECSC [European Coal and Steel Community]- administered coal and steel resources of: FR, W GR, Netherlands, IT, Belgium, & Luxemburg
main architect of ECSC: Robert Schuman
Third Stage:
1957: OG members of ECSC signed Treaty of Rome- established EEC [European Economic Community]- better known as the Common Market
EEC lifted almost all trade restrictions among member nations
1973: joined by BR , IRE, and Denmark
1986: revision to Treaty of Rome- European Single Act- provided free movement among members of capital, labor, banking, and insurance
Fourth Stage:
1992: Maastricht Treaty led to establishment of the Euro- in circulation by Jan 2002 [ w/ the exception of Denmark, Sweden, and BR (refused to give up BR Pound)]
increased cooperation in defense, justice, and environmental affairs
name changed from EEC to EU [European Union] European Union- Recent and Future Expansion Members that joined in 2004:
Czech Republic
Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania
Slovakia, Slovenia
Turkey [Members of EU hesitant]
Romania doubted that turkey could meet economic needs required for membership
questioned Turkey's commitment to human rights
hesitant admitting a Muslim state Western Europe:
Post WWII Developments Great Britain postwar period began with replacement of Churchill [Conservative] with Clement Attlee [Labour] Economic and Social Reform 1942: William Beveridge [Liberal] was asked to produce a report: recommended that all adults pay weekly contribution- benefits for the sick, unemployed, retired, widowed
seen as a way to provide for a minimum standard of living
1945: electoral triumph of Labour party gave way for them to establish "cradle-to-grave social welfare"- NHS= National Health Service- comprehensive system of free healthcare Nationalization of Industry 1945: govt took control of Bank of England, railroads, and the electric, iron, and steel industries
BR was in major debt to US after war
increase in social services improved quality of life in postwar BR [ironic b/c others lives were depleted]
period generally referred to as "Age of Austerity"- ended in 1954 [wartime rationing of butter and sugar ended]
1951: Labour party exhausted- gave chance for Conservatives in the election
once back in dominance- Conservatives undid nationalization of iron and steel industries
continued to support social service
known as "Politics of Consensus" b/c the 2 parties disagreed on many things, but they agreed on idea of social service and govt involvement in economy Economic Decline reasons for postwar decline still controversial
BR had to deal with aggressive unions demanding higher wages
relied on older factories
lacked central economic planning
after 1951 Conservative period, Labour party reemerged 1964-74
leading PM [prime minister] Harold Wilson proved successful at the polls but couldn't strengthen BR in the global economy Irish Violence 1969: BR govt sent troops to the troubled N IRE
Jan 30, 1972: 13 Irish Catholics killed when BR soldiers marched on activists = Bloody Sunday Margaret Thatcher
and Post Thatcher Years 1979: PM James Callaghan's Labour ministry failed to deal with a wave of strikes against road transportation and public services = "Winter of Discontent"
provided for Conservative triumph- led by Margaret Thatcher [became BR's first female PM]
tight control over money supply to reduce inflation
sharp cuts in public spending
tax cuts
sought to make BR more competitive globally
reduced power of trade unions
re-privatized the nationalized industries
she came into trouble during third term- she tried introducing market principles into NHS and education system
her hostility to working toward further European integration created discontention within her own party
1990: she resigned and was replaced by John Major
he continued most of Thatcher's domestic policies
more pro-European than Thatcher- signed Maastricht Treaty [part of European unification efforts]
1997: Labour party triumphed under Tony Blair [out of govt for 18 yrs prior]
Blair moved away from socialist roots in Labour party- created "New Labour"
once in power, Blair and the Labour ministry focused on:
improving social services
reforming the House of Lords
moving some power from Westminster and toward regional parliaments in Wales and Scotland
resigned in 2007- replaced by Gordon Brown as Labour leader and PM France FR chose to deal with the aftermath of the Vichy govt with propaganda [e.g., GR was responsible for anything bad in FR]
de Gaulle expected to dominate FR govt in postwar times
he stepped away when the new Fourth Republic denied the establishment of a strong presidency
women now allowed to vote
Republic had to deal with defeat in Indochina [Vietnam] 1954, as well as the Algerian crisis
Algerian crisis sparked fears of an in-FR coup- led to return of de Gaulle to politics
1958: plebiscite that established the Fifth Republic under the strong presidency of de Gaulle
1962: he vetoed BR's entrance into the Common Market [in efforts to strengthen FR globally]
1968: launched first h-bomb
1966: withdrawal from NATO
recognized Chinese communism Economic Struggle 1945: 5 million returned from war needing work
transportation systems ruined in war
limited coal and food
citizens found solace in the French Communist Party [appeared to be able to fix economic problems]
first postwar coalition govt- pushed out 1947
1947: Jean Monnet [one of the founders of the European Community] began the implementation of his economic plan in FR
Monnet Plan: established the CGP [Commissaritat General du Plan]- provided for nonpolitical technocrats to run the economy
this, along with foreign investment and central planning, facilitated the rise of FR economy above the ranks of BR and GR
it created a sense that FR life was being Americanized- embodied strongly by the popularity of products like Cola
1968: university students revolted against the larger class sizes created thru the growing number of students pursuing higher education; partly in reaction to Vietnam War
May: students and workers forged a union- it quickly dissipated due to multiple disagreements between the two groups
1969: de Gaulle resigned
Gaullist party continued to rule FR until 1981 [electoral victory of Socialist leader Francois Mitterrand]
focused on social reform and reducing unemployment
1995: Mitterrand left politics - replaced by Jacques Chirac
platform committed to:
fixing social problems [e.g., racism]
tax cuts
job programs
social unrest grew during his 2nd term
May 2007: conservative Nicolas Sarkozy succeeded him Italy 1943: fall of Mussolini's govt.
1946: referendum led to an Italian Republic- dominated by Christian Democrats until the 1990s
referred to as the "economic miracle" b/c of the progress it made in the 1950s/60s
large role played by the state in the Italian economy thru the IRI [Institute for Industrial Reconstruction] created in 1931
Fiat was the only large manufacturer that remained in private hands
"southern question" emerged- still a gap in lifestyle between N and S IT today
by the 1970s: inflation, high unemployment, and increased workers strikes
mafia revived in the south
leftist parties became violent
1978: Red Brigade [left party] kidnapped ex-PM of IT Aldo Moro and later killed him when the govt would not negotiate his release Germany June 1948: first crisis over Berlin- US and BR introduced new currencies into their zones w/o Soviet approval
Stalin retaliated by blockading Berlin
US retaliated by enacting the Berlin Airlift- flying supplies, food, etc..., into E. Berlin
lasted 10 1/2 months under General Clay and pres Truman until Stalin lifted the blockade w/o conditions A Divided GR 1949: FR, BR, and US combined their holdings into a GR Republic
Stalin responded months later by naming his zone the German Democratic Republic
1955: W. GR rearmed and entered NATO
GR would remain the center of the Cold War
1958: Soviet Premier Khrushchev gave an ultimatum to W. GR- stated that the West had to get out of Berlin in 6 mo.
Eisenhower made it clear he wasn't leaving The Berlin Wall Aug 19, 1961: E. GR border police began to build a barb wire barrier between the 2 sides of Berlin
followed in the next few days by a concrete wall
Communists saw it as a necessity b/c 2.5 million scholars left from E. to W. GR by 1949
led to the end of constant crises- both sides accepted the existence of a divided city Reforms first years of W. GR dominated by Konrad Adenauer- served as chancellor of the Christian Democratic Union 1949- 1963
anti-nazi- conservative
tried to make up for Nazi holocaust by directly paying Israel and compensating victims
ushered in a period economic growth = "Economic Miracle"
in part due to the enlarged labor force created thru the fleeing of GRs from the Soviet East
main govt architect of the economic prosperity: Gerhard Ritter- became chancellor 1961 after Adenauer retired
success came thru a combo of dropping marxist principles of class struggle- 1955- and the emergence of Willy Brandt as party leader
1969: became chancellor- first socialist in GR since 1930
Ostpolitik: policy of contact between W. GR and Soviets- enacted by Brandt
led to treaties w/ Soviets, Poland and the Czechs
1972: Brandt received a Nobel Peace Prize
1974: after one of his staff members was arrested as an E. GR spy- his term as chancellor ended
succeeded by Helmut Schmidt who led the Social Democrats to electoral victory- 1976 Reunification 1982: Helmut Kohl became chancellor
worked with FR Mitterrand to form EU
1990: GR was reunified
it faced high unemployment
1998: Social Democrats under Gerhard Schroder gained the electoral vote
lowered unemployment in first term, but it rose to even higher heights than those existent under Kohl
introduced multiple reforms that gained him unpopularity
Nov 2005: Angela Merkel became the first female chancellor of GR after creating a coalition w/ the CDU and Social Democrats Collapse of the Communist Bloc East GR
Berlin Wall 1953: E. GR workers went to the streets
criticized govt's plan to increase productivity
demanded greater political freedom
1961: mass migrations to the West
led to the Soviet construction of the Berlin Wall Reform in Hungary 1956: strikes in Poland set off movement in Hungary
Imre Nagy: reformed communist that took control of govt and liberalized it
Hungarian goals:
establish a multiparty system
resign from Warsaw Pact
reestablish Hungary as a neutral nation
1956: Soviets angered
crushed the reform movement Soviet Power Struggles 1953: death of Stalin
followed by significant developments
winner of power struggle after his death : Nikita Khrushchev
1956: communist party's 20th national congress
Khrushchev held in secret session at the congress
attacked Stalin's purges
claimed Stalin deviated from Marxist-Leninist govt
1959: Khrushchev visited the US but tension between RS and US grew afterward
Soviets shot down US U-2 spy plane
October 1962: Cuban Missile Crisis
Soviets sent nukes to Cuba
Kennedy's skillful handling prevented a nuclear war
1964: Khrushchev forced to retire-- end of liberalism
successor: Leonid Brezhnev
sought to restrengthen party control
KGB supported the obliteration of satellite state reforms
1968: rise of a reform govt in Czech
"Prague Spring": goal was to bring about a more humanistic socialism
Brezhnev saw it as a threat to the Warsaw Pact
"Brezhnev Doctrine": declared that the Soviets would support any established communist state in E. EUR threatened by internal revolution
Dubcek [led Czech uprising] replaced by someone Brezhnev liked better Reform in E. EUR 1978: Polish Cardinal, Karol Wojtyla named Pope John Paul II
1980: Lech Walesa led a massive strike in Gdansk
workers demanded the right to form an independent union
"Solidarity" survived martial law by going underground
aided by Catholic Church
1989: Polish govt's conditions forced them to negotiate w/ Walesa and his peeps
resulted in promise form multiparty elections
when the elections took place, all Communist candidates lost
Mikhail Gorbachev took control of the Kremlin
opposed to Brezhnev Doctrine
1989: communist regimes peacefully collapsed in:
Bulgaria and Albania
1990: reunification of GR and destruction of Berlin Wall
violent Nicolae Ceausescu tried to hold on to power in Romania
by Christmas 1989: his govt collapsed Collapse of the Soviets as satellite states transformed, Russians in the Soviet Union expressed their desire for change
Gorbachev accepted necessity of:
Glasnot: openness in debate
Perestroika: economic restructuring of the state- failed to improve the Russian standard of living
1990: Communists forced to allow political participation of non-communists
Gorbachev hired many extreme communists in an effort to stop future reform
backfired when Boris Yeltsin and Gorbachev clashed
Yeltsin served as chairman of Russian Parliament
extremists in govt tired to overthrow Gorbachev in a coup
Yeltsin led resistance against extremists
coup failed
1991: Soviet Union dissolved- Gorbachev resigned soon thereafter New Russian
Republic 1991: Yeltsin elected president of new Russian Federation
in first term: Yeltsin decided on the move from centralization to free-market capitalism
referred to as "shock treatment" due to speed of change
based off of significant short term economic trouble- followed by stabilization
led to hyperinflation and the transfer of state assets to a few oligarchs
transition to political democracy also a struggle
Oct1993: Congress of the People's Deputies {RS Parliament] began impeachment of Yeltsin
Yeltsin responded by ordering the bombing of the congress building and the ordered the legislature be dissolved
Yeltsin issued a new constitution
creation of Duma- RS parliament
1996: ran for reelection
business oligarchs funded his campaign
promised them greater access to the remaining state assets
won reelection
worked out peace treaty that brought a short halt of battles with Chechnya
selected Vladimir Putin as PM [former KGB]
1999: resigned from office- very apologetic 2000: Putin's advantage as PM won him the election
Putin's first act as president: protection of Yeltsin and family from prosecution
Sept 2004: Chechen terrorists seized control of a school- killed 300 hostages = Beslan Massacre
Putin used it as an excuse to enact a law that ended practice of popular elections for governors in RS provinces
claimed that centralized govt was more capable of protecting citizens
Putin had popular support in RS
2004: easily reelected
after military decline in the 1990s, Putin attempted to reestablish military strength of RS
2008: Putin replaced by Dmitri Medvedev
regarded as Putin's puppet
Putin is now PM of RS Ethnic Warfare: Yugoslavia former leader Tito led successful resistance against Germans during WWII
Tito also helped form a Yugo state free from communist bloc
strong leadership limited ethnic outbreaks
1980: Tito died
soon after: Croatia and Slovenia formed separate nations
1992: people in Bosnian state desired independence
Bosnian Serbs refused to let Bosnia be independent [didn't want to be a minority]
with assistance from new Yugo pres Slobonan Milosevic, they began "ethnic cleansing"
the genocidal murder of Muslims and other ethnics in Bosnia
Serbs shelled Sarajevo
led to the American Dayton Accords 1995- provided for short time of peace
Serbs saw Kosovo as cradle of their identity
1998: Milosevic ordered an attack on Kosovo
justified by the KLA's [Kosovo Liberation Army] attack on the Serbs
March 1999: NATO launched aerial bombing on Serbs
after they refused to sign a treaty to grant Kosovar autonomy
2000: Milosevic forced to call elections which he lost
new president: Vojislav Kostunica
Kostunica initially promised not to turn Milosevic into the War Crimes Tribunal
2001: changed his mind- in order to receive needed $$ from west Yeltsin Putin
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