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Transcript of Middle ages
Late Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
First barbarian kingdoms. 5th - 9th centuries.
First european nations
Great extensions of land granted to a vassal in return for military service.
These were the territories that once were part of the Western Roman Empire.
Land for agriculture, forest, hunting, villages, churches, lakes, etc.
Vassalage. Lords and vassals.
King on top of the hierarchy?
The main activity was agriculture. the base for subsistance during the feudalism.
Trade was minimal.
Fishing and cattle raising were complementary activities.
Production of goods was minimal and only used to satisfy everyday needs.
Hierarchichal society that wouldn´t allow movility.
Lords and Clergy
Knights and noblemen
System of life-long relationships in which warriors swore an oath of loyalty to their leader. They fought for their chief, and he in turn took care of their needs. By the eight century, an individual who served a lord in a military capacity was known as a vassal.
Serfs were loyal to their lords as well, and they received protection, food and shelter (which were produced by their own work)
Minimal authority from the king.
Real power was hold by the different lords, and the king had practically none intervention in regular people´s lives.
Knowledge, science and philosophy belongs to the Church.
Only members of the church and some male nobles were allowed to study.
Monasteries were the "temples of knowledge".
Manuscripts were written there.
Libraries were there.
Overpopulation of fiefs.
Stability in Europe.
Obsolescence of vassallage.
Revival of trade.
Better techniques for agriculture.
Boroughs or burghs
The growth of cities diversify jobs: craftspeople and artisans.
Circulation of money!
Surplus! (you will use this in Economics.)
Fairs for trade. New land and sea trade routes.
Commercial capitalism. (CENEVAL TOPIC)
Guilds. Masters, apprentices.
Expansion of cultivable or arable land.
They cut trees!
Use of iron
Heavy wheeled plow (carruca)
Power of water and wind (Mills)
Three field system of crop rotation.
Development of a new urban and rural social hierarchy
Knights and clergy
Peasants (free) and
Nobles and lh
Rich merchants, masters, craftsmen and professionists.
Small merchants, artisans, apprentices , etc.
Monarchies become stronger.
Kings establish strategic alliances with the church and with merchants.
This is the beginning of the nation-states.
Universities!!!!!! in the most important cities of Europe.
They are directed by the Church.
Exclusively for upper classes.
Curiosity for sciences and critical thinking emerge.
Arts, Law, Medicine and Theology.
War! which one? (waaaaaaaaaaaar)
Decline of the church: the Great Schism.