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Implementing Change in the Curriculum

(MST EdTech 227A Course Design and Development)

Monica P

on 21 September 2013

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Transcript of Implementing Change in the Curriculum

Implementing Change in the Curriculum
Types of Curriculum Change
Factors that Influence Curriculum Implementation
Monitoring Curriculum Implementation
The Role of Technology in Curriculum Implementation
The role of technology finds its place at the onset of curriculum implementation, namely at the stage of instructional planning.
1. Curriculum Planning - Aims, Goals and Objectives
2. Curriculum Design – Content & Subject Matter
3. Curriculum Development - Content & Subject Matter
4. Curriculum Implementation - Experience
5. Curriculum Evaluation - Assessment
6. Curriculum Maintenance – Change & Innovation

Six Stages of Curriculum Development Process
Implementation takes place when the teacher-constructed syllabus, the teacher’s personality, the teaching materials and the teaching environment interact with the learner.
Curriculum implementation therefore refers to how the planned or officially designed course of study is translated by the teacher into
, schemes of work
and lessons to be delivered to students.
– requires teachers to shift from the current program which they are familiar with to the new or modified program;
– involves changes in the knowledge, actions and attitudes of people;
– can be seen as a process of professional development and growth involving ongoing interactions, feedback and assistance;
– is a process of clarification whereby individuals and groups come to understand and practice a change in attitudes and behaviors; often involving using new resources;
– involves change which requires effort and will produce a certain amount of anxiety and to minimize these, it is useful to organize implementation into manageable events and to set achievable goals;
– requires a supportive atmosphere in which there is trust and open communication between administrators, teachers educators, and where risk-taking is encouraged.
Curriculum Implementation as a Change Process
(Fullan and Pomfret,1977, p.391).
“Effective implementation of innovations requires time, personal interaction and contacts, in-service training and other forms of people-based support”
How do you bring about change?
What is change in relation to curriculum?
Change is doing something differently.
Change results from new knowledge.
to change, they must recognize the need for change.
People are more likely to recognize the need for change if they understand change and how it works.
Kurt Lewin (1951)
Two competing forces:
Driving Forces
Restraining Forces
Curriculum Implementation as a Change Process
These are forces that that are driving or pushing you to do something and change in a particular direction. They tend to initiate a change and keep it going.
These are forces restraining or preventing you from doing something and changing.
Curriculum change is a complex and difficult process and requires careful planning, adequate time, funding, support and opportunities for teacher involvement.
2. Alteration
3. Perturbations
4. Restructuring
5. Value Orientation
One element may be substituted for another already present.
This occurs when a change is introduced into existing material in the hope that it will appear minor and thus be readily adopted.
These are changes that are disruptive but teachers adjust to them within a fairly short time.
These are changes that lead to a modification of the whole school system.
These are shifts in the fundamental value orientations of school personnel.
1. Substitution
1. People resist because they do not understand it
The key is ‘communication’. You have to explain to them “Why”. You have to answer the Why, What, When, How and Where questions. Remember, the effectiveness of communication is not the ‘message sent’ but of the ‘message received
2. People resist because of lack of ownership
4. People resist if there is lack of incentives or benefits
5. People resist if they do not have time to engage with the change
3. People resist if they do not have competences to cope with the changes
You have to convince teachers that even though it comes from the outside, their view and opinions have been considered at the planning and design stages of curriculum development. Involve teachers in exploring the relevance of the new curriculum and give them the freedom to explore the new skills needed for utilizing or implementing the curriculum. This will get them to feel that they are an important part of the curriculum implementation process.
Adequate time and resources have to be set aside for the training of teachers involved in implementing the new curriculum.
Make sure that teachers who are actively involved in curriculum change are rewarded. The reward need not necessarily be financial, but their efforts need to be given due recognition.
Lighten their workload so they can participate in the change. Re- prioritize their work. Do not expect people to have the energy to change when this means failing on the tasks for which they are held responsible
"Teaching and learning are reciprocal processes that depend on and affect one another.
Thus, the assessment component deals with how well the students are learning and how well the teacher is teaching "
(Kellough and Kellough (1999))
"The main reason for the failure on curriculum implementation is the lack of understanding of the culture of the school by both experts outside the school system and educators in the system."
Sarason (1990)
•Resource materials and facilities
•Interest groups and Professional Org.
•The School environment
•Culture and Ideology
•Instructional supervision - Leadership
The most important person in the curriculum implementation process is the teacher. With their knowledge, experience and competencies, teachers are central to any curriculum improvement effort.
If the teacher is to be able to translate curriculum intentions into reality, it is imperative that the teacher understand the curriculum document or syllabus well in order to implement it effectively.
Teachers must be involved in curriculum planning and development so that they can implement and modify the curriculum for the benefit of their learners.
How to get teachers committed?
enhance their knowledge of the program.
Possible Topics to be addressed in designing teacher professional development opportunities:
• Program philosophy
• Content
• Pedagogy
• Components of the program
Friedenberg & Teacher Conformity
The final destination of any curriculum is the classroom.
Implementing Curriculum in the Classroom
Now, classroom teachers take over and make decisions of a methodological nature.

They will be answering questions like:
– What objectives do I hope to accomplish as a result of instruction?
– What topics or content will I have to cover?
– What teaching methods or strategies should I use to direct learning and achieve the objectives?
– How do I evaluate instruction to determine whether I have successfully achieved the objective?
In the classroom, decision making is the responsibility of the teacher.
Learners are also a critical element in curriculum implementation.
The learners hold the key to what is actually transmitted and adopted from the official curriculum.
The learner factor influences teachers in their selection of learning experiences.
The government or MOE should supply schools with adequate resource materials such as textbooks, teaching aids and stationery in order to enable teachers and learners to play their roles satisfactorily in the curriculum implementation process
The appropriate authority must also provide physical facilities such as classrooms, laboratories, workshops, libraries and sports fields in order to create an environment in which implementation can take place.
It is therefore important to involve these groups at the curriculum planning stage.
- can provide schools with financial resources to purchase required materials
- demand the inclusion of certain subjects in the curriculum.
- influence learners to reject courses they consider detrimental to the interests of the group
Schools located in rich socio-economic environments and those that have adequate human and material resources can implement the curriculum to an extent that would be difficult or impossible for schools in poor economic environments
Cultural and ideological differences within a society or country can also influence curriculum implementation. Some communities may resist a domineering culture or government ideology and hence affect the implementation of the centrally planned curriculum.
School Supervisors/Administrators are responsible for:
• deploying staff,
• allocating time to subjects taught at the school,
• providing teaching and learning materials, and
• creating an atmosphere conducive to effective teaching and learning.

The school supervisor monitors and guides curriculum implementation through ensuring that schemes of work, lesson plans and records of marks are prepared regularly.
Effective curriculum implementation does not take place in a school where the school supervisor/administrator is incapable of executing supervisory functions.
Assessment in the form of examinations influences curriculum implementation tremendously.
Learning resources required to deliver the curriculum
Teachers, technical and administrative staff
Books, journals and multimedia resources
Teaching rooms, office space, social and study space
There should be sufficient staff to deliver and support the delivery and assessment of the curriculum.
including IT and AV equipment, models and simulators, laboratory and clinical equipment, whiteboards, flip charts
the school will require adequate funding to sustain its activities
lists of core textbooks for each part of the curriculum and other resources
there should be adequate provision to accommodate learners at all stages of the program as well as social and study space for students to spend time outside the classroom
There should also be sufficient space for teachers to prepare teaching and meet with students.
should focus attention on processes and performance with the objective of drawing attention to particular features that may require corrective action.
include putting activities in place to ensure that input deliveries, work plans, expected output and other actions are proceeding according to plans.
Monitoring should enable curriculum planners to detect serious setbacks or bottlenecks of the implementation process that may cause the program not to achieve expected learning outcomes.
What should be monitored?
Student recruitment and selection processes
Teaching staff
The teaching and learning process
Learning resources
Performance standards
Methods of Monitoring Curriculum Implementation
Feedback questionnaires
Focus groups/meetings/interviews
Student assessment results
The teaching and learning process can be observed in a variety of settings and forms can be used to record the information in a standardized way.
questionnaires can be used to collect information from staff, students and external people or groups involved with the curriculum.
structured or semi-structured meetings (with individuals or groups) and focus groups
results from both formative and summative assessments should be analyzed regularly in order to evaluate whether individual assessments are performing reliably and validly and also whether minimum set standards are being achieved
reports which the institution has to provide for internal use (e.g., absence statistics) or external agencies can be useful sources of information about the program.
Learners make or unmake the curriculum by their active and direct involvement.
Why are school administrators and curriculum managers important to curriculum implementation?
They are responsible in the formulation of the schools’ vision, philosophy, mission and objectives
They lead the evaluation of teaching personnel and school program.
They are responsible for keeping records of curriculum and reporting learning outcomes
Parents are the best supporters of the school
•How parents may shape the curriculum:
3. In most schools, the PTA is organized.
Parents as Supporters of the Curriculum
1. Effective parental involvement in school affairs may be linked to parent educational programs which is central to high quality educational experiences of children.
2. The parents involvement extends from school premise to their homes. The parents become part of the environment of learning at home.
Community Members/Materials as Curriculum Resources
success in the implementation of the curriculum requires resources
community members may provide materials can very well substitute for what are needed to implement the curriculum..
some community members can become resource speakers that can provide local and indigenous knowledge in the school curriculum.
In the choice of instructional media, technology comes into play.
Technology offers various tools of learning and these ranges from non-projected and non projected media from which the teacher can choose depending on what he sees fit with the intended instructional setting.
The Role of Technology in Curriculum Delivery

1. Upgrade the quality of teaching-and-learning in schools
2. Increase the capability of the teacher to effectively inculcate learning, and for students to gain mastery of lessons and courses
3. Broaden the delivery of education outside schools through non-traditional approaches (formal and informal learning)
4. Revolutionize the use of technology to boost educational paradigm shifts that give importance to student-centered and holistic learning
Pilot Testing, Monitoring and Evaluating the Implementation of the Curriculum
This process will gather empirical data to support whether the material or curriculum is useful, relevant, reliable and valid.
Pilot Testing
Example: Basic Education Curriculum or BEC
is a periodic assessment and adjustment during the try out period.
Pilot Testing, Monitoring and Evaluating the Implementation of the Curriculum
Curriculum evaluation
a systematic process of judging the value, effectiveness and adequacy of a curriculum:
its process,
and setting.
Two Ways of Curriculum Evaluation
an approach which places the content, design, operation, and maintenance of evaluation procedure in the hands of school personnel.
a voluntary process of submitting a curricular program to an external accrediting body for review in any level of education: basic, tertiary or graduate school to assure standard School-Based Evaluation Accreditation
Implementing Change in the Curriculum
Thank You!! ^^
Yenna Monica D. P.
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