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IB 132L: Independent Investigation II
Transcript of IB 132L: Independent Investigation II
Eileen Qiu Cardiovascular Effects of
Hyperventilation and Rebreathing IB 132L Independent Investigation 2 1.) Normal
2.) Hyperventilation with shallow, quick breaths (1.5 mins at 150 breaths/min)
3.) Hyperventilation with deep, forceful exhalation (1.5 mins at 78 breaths/min)
4.) Breathing into a paper bag with nose plugged (3.5 mins at 30 breaths/min) Introduction Discussion Methods Number of Subjects: 3 BREATHING PATTERNS We need Air Without oxygen, the brain usually dies within 5 minutes
Breathing moves air in and out of the lungs, and is the process of gas exchange References Measuring Heart Rate:
Pulse Oximeter Measuring Blood Pressure: Sphygmomanometer Different Breathing Patterns Rebreathing Hyperventilation Breathing in exhaled air leads to an increase in CO2 levels
A common remedy: breathing into a bag
usually a symptom of psychological causes, such as panic disorders
characterized by rapid, deep breathing
leads to low CO2 levels in the body
symptoms of hyperventilation include light-headedness and fainting
not enough blood gets to the brain due to vasoconstriction of blood vessels Teamwork! With collected data, we performed 2-tailed, paired t-tests between normal breathing data and each of the 3 breathing patterns to determine statistical significance Results http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2008/05/12/science/real_190.jpg Effects of CO2 on Heart Rate Mithoefer JC, Kazemi H. Effect of Carbon Dioxide on Heart Rate. Journal of Applied Physiology: Volume 19 - No. 6 (1151-1156). November 1964.
Price, Henry. Effects of Carbon Dioxide on the Cardiovascular System. Anesthesiology: Volume 21 - Issue 6 (652-663). November/December 1960. CO2 makes the blood more acidic. This decrease in pH is thought to be responsible for the decrease in heart rate (Price 1960). There is also evidence for a more direct causal relation between blood CO2 concentration and heart rate (Mithoefer et al. 1964). Effects of CO2 on Blood Pressure CO2 is a vasodilator
(it widens blood vessels, decreasing resistance to blood flow) Conclusion Limitations We could not measure CO2 exhalation or blood CO2
Each person has a different body chemistry
Small sample size: only 3 subjects Future research Meditation to lower blood pressure/ hypertension and heart rate Hypothesis Questions? http://ehrig-privat.de/ueg/images/breathe_in-out.JPG The Purpose of Study To figure out whether rebreathing with a paper bag is an effective treatment of hyperventilation Breathing into a paper bag is an effective method of treatment for hyperventilation because it helps lower heart rate and blood pressure. * p-values < 0.05 show statistical significance Our data was consistent with our hypothesis; rebreathing resulted in lower heart rate and blood pressure.