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Parkinson's Disease


Rene Mathis

on 3 October 2012

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Transcript of Parkinson's Disease


Melissa Sander
Jazmine Cooks
Yasmin Galicianava
Rene Mathis Biological Foundations of Psychology
Jesse Ruffo M. A.
TEAM E Medline Plus. (2012). Parkinson’s disease. Retrieve from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000755.htm
News Medical. (2008). Parkinson’s disease can also affect changes in thought, behavior, and judgement. Retrieved from http://www.news-medical.net/news/2008/12/14/44183.aspx
SACT Trust. (n.d.). Parkinson’s disease statistics. Retrieved from http://www.sactrust.org/pd_stats.htm References 1 million Americans live with PD
60,000 Americans diagnosed with PD each year
1 in 272 people affected
Estimated 10 million people worldwide living with PD
Affects whites more than African Americans or Asians
Medication costs average $2,500 per year
Therapeutic surgery may cost up to $100,000 per patient
Death rate in U.S.: 14, 593 per year (equivalent to 39 per day) Statistics Walking & balance disturbances
No facial expressions
Slowed movements
Difficulty in fine hand movement
(IE: Writing, eating)
Stiff muscles (usually begins in legs)
Shaking (AKA “tremors”)
When limbs are at rest
Goes away w/movement of limbs
Tremors eventually affect lips, head, tongue, feet
Finger-thumb rolling (pill-rolling tremors) Functional Changes Behavior
Mood Changes
Cognitive Disturbances
“Parkinson’s Psychosis”
(In advanced stages):
Paranoid Delusions

Many caregivers unaware & unprepared for psychiatric changes Behavioral & Functioning Changes Slowed, quieter speech
Monotone voice
Autonomic Dysfunction
Low blood pressure
Lack of body
temperature control Functional Changes (cont…) Koppula, S., Kumar, H., More, S., Byung Wook, K., In Su, K., & Dong Kug, C. (2012). Recent Advances on the Neuroprotective Potential of Antioxidants in Experimental Models of Parkinson's Disease. International Journal Of Molecular Sciences, 13(8), 10608-10629. doi:10.3390/ijms130810608

National parkinson faundation. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.parkinson.org/Parkinson-s- Disease/PD-101/What-is-Parkinson-s-disease

Medicinenet.com. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.medicinenet.com/parkinsons_disease_pictures_slideshow/article.htm

Parkinson's disease. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://images.search.yahoo.com/search/images;_ylt=A2KJkPiH9GBQnmkA7E yJzbkF?p=parkinson's disease&fr=yfp-t-701-s&ei=utf- 8&n=30&x=wrt&y=Search Slight shaking of a finger, hand, leg, or lip

Stiffness or difficulty walking

Difficulty getting out of a chair

Small, crowded handwriting

Stooped posture

A 'masked' face, frozen in a serious expression Parkinson’s Symptoms Substantia nigra production of dopamine slows down

Reactive oxygen species
clusters of atoms one of which contains an unpaired electron in its outermost shell of electrons

Oxidative stress

imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species

60% to 80% of dopamine producing cells are damage Parkinson’s Second most common neurodegenerative disease

Most common in older people

Affects movement, muscle control and balance

Symptoms can evolve over a 20 year period Parkinson’s Disease Causes of Parkinson's Caused by progressive impairment of deterioration of neurons in area
of the brain known as the substantia nigra
Produces dopamine
Allows communication with substantia nigra and corpus stiatum
Coordinates smooth and balanced muscle movement
Lack of dopamine causes loss of ability to control body movement
It is not known why Parkinson's Diesease occurs
It is believed to be developed from:
but many people who develop the disease do not have genetic occurrences
Certain toxins in the environment
Maganese, carbon monoxide, carbon disulfide and other pesticides
Oxidative Stress Causes Cont Things that may cause Parkinson's like symptoms Medications
Shy Drager Syndrome
Street Drugs
Blood Vessel Disorders Treatments Parkinson's cannot be stopped or reversed
Symptoms can be relieved by medication or surgery
Treatment is different for every person and will change as disease progresses
Things that affect decisions on treatment are:
Work status
Living Situation
Mild symptoms many not need treatment Treatment Cont. Exercise, physical therapy and occupational therapy are helpful at all stages of Parkinson's
Helps maintain strength, mobility and independence
Simplify activities of daily living and re-arrange furniture so that it is easier to maneuver around the house
Emotional help and education about the disease is vital
At moderate stage, taking medications depends on severity of symptoms:
Levodopa is the most common medication used (causes motor complications after 5 years)
Most doctors will then prescribe Pramipexole or Ropinirole to prevent problems from occurring for about 14 years Treatment Cont. For severe symptoms
medications vary depending on symptoms
surgeries such as deep brain stimulation are done Role of Genetics on
Onset of Parkinson’s Both Genetics and environmental factors lead to onset of PD

New research since 1996

Genetics as the sole contributor remains controversial
Important pieces of the puzzle

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