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WWI & WWII's effect on Canada's Autonomy
Transcript of WWI & WWII's effect on Canada's Autonomy
How Did Canada's Participation in WWI And WWII Lead To Greater Autonomy?
Canada's participation in important WWI Battles
Canadian victory increased Canada's want to become independent of Britain
100,000 Canadians fought
French and English Canadians
Increase In Military Power
All four divisions of the Canadian Corps went
Battle of Ypres
6,000 Canadians wounded, dead, or missing
Department Of Munitions And Supplies
Headed by C.D. Howe. It regulated many things, such as: gas, silk, timber, steel, and machine tools.
Near the end of WWII, Canada's war production was 4th highest among the allies. 70% of Canada's munitions went to allies and 30% for itself.
Dominion of Canada along with Australia, New Zealand, India, South Africa, France, Japan, the Russian Empire, Greece and Belgium.
Entered the war when Britain declared war in 1914.
Canada fought mostly in Belgium and France.
Canada went to war because it was a part of the British Empire and was responsible for helping Great Britain in its time of need.
Made alliances with the Allies.
Britain declared war on Germany on 3 September 1939. Canada entered the war as a separate country on 10 September 1939.
Second Battle of Ypres
Canadians stood their ground even with the chlorine gas - establishing a Canadian reputation
Germany began using chlorine poison gas
6,000 Canadians were killed, wounded, or captured
Third Battle of Ypres
General Currie lead with an independence from Britain
In WWI and WWII the demand for work was very high. The Imperial Munitions Board Employed 250 000 men and women. Factories were flooded with work.
Fought in Normandy, Hong Kong, Dieppe, Italy, Juno Beach and other parts of Northwestern Europe.
15,000 Canadians killed or wounded
Role of women
With so many munitions being manufactured, Canada's debt in 1919 was $2.5 billion. As a result o this Canada has to pay $164 million a year. At the end of WWII this debt had reached a total of $18 billion.
Increase in rights
change in roles
war efforts / Impact
Took place on the Western Front
French and English Canadians
Important battles Canada participated in during WWII
Battle of Somme
Impact on Canada
Opinions on War
24,000 Canadian casualties
British and French Empires against the German Empire
To defeat the Axis.
Took place on both sides of the Somme River
World War 1
Impact on nationalism
Impact on war
Britain relied on Canada for support, weaponry and supplies.
Britain, France, and Belgium against Germany
WWI - Over 600,000 Canadians served
- Post war only 50,000 in army
WWII - 1.1 millions Canadians served
Germany wanted access of the English Channel
Germans ended the battle after the stalemate
Invented the Ross Rifle and Huot Automatic Rifle for WW1 use.
World War 2
Battle of Dieppe
Gross Domestic Product
At the end of WWII Canada had a debt to GDP ratio of 100%. But this debt was paid off by 1970.
-11 billion dollars of munitions were created in WWII
-815,000 military vehicles produced
-1.7 million small arms manufactured
- Canada lent money to Britain interest-free.
Growth in Government
Authority over citizens
social welfare services
- New medicines
- New devices for communication, navigation
- Weaponry, atomic bomb, chemical warfare, small arms, and vehicles
- All of these had different impacts on the war and the outcome
907 Canadians died, 586 wounded, 1874 taken prisoners
Those who were too young or too old to fight in the war helped by volunteering
Volunteering included knitting warm woolen clothing
collecting books and newspapers
baking cookies and other treats to send over seas
civilians cultivated small gardens on their own land, on rooftops, or in public parks
increase the availability of food
didn't place additional stress on the land and manpower
gardens were morale boosters (people take pride in contributing to the war)
The Canadian Government sold Victory Bonds to citizens in order to pay for the war
A loan to the government that could be redeemed with interest after 5,10, or 20 years
In 1915 a hundred million dollars worth of Victory Bonds was issued and quickly purchased.
Changes in Roles
Women were primarily housewives before the war
Women were recruited in the labour force, many for the first time, to fill jobs vacated by men on duty overseas
Much of the work in the nation's factories, and in the home-front military services, were carried out by women
War Emergency Training Program trained women in non-traditional work such as welding, electronics, and mechanics
War Efforts / Impact
Although not allowed to fight directly, Canadian women helped in many different ways.
Filling jobs in factories as munitions supplier
Women's corps in army, air force, and navy included 50000 women during WWII
Around 2500 women were part of the Medical corps "Blue Birds" during WWI
Volunteering such as knitting and baking for the troops
Corporal Chris Findlay
Canadian nurses "Blue Birds"
Increase in Rights
Conscription during WWI lead to women who were related to war being able to vote
Attitudes changed, women were treated equally as men because of women’s contributions.
First women in house of common Agnes Macphail
Persons Case 1929 eventually lead to women being officially recognized as a person under the law
Changes in roles lead to increase in rights
Nurses voting in 1917 due to the military voters act
information, especially of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote a political cause or point of view.
Propaganda was used during both wars to increase nationalism towards the country
It was used to gain support for the war
Propaganda also made the enemies (Germany..etc) look evil and inhumane
The poster above tries to get people to financially support the war all while making the enemies look like monsters
Impact on War
The Media had a positive effect on the success of the war
Propaganda posters encouraged people to support the war through victory bonds and victory gardens
Censorship in media only let information out that would recruit more soldiers
Media increased hatred and justified why the war was going on
Newspaper article encourages people to buy victory bonds
Canada started manufacturing and developing weapons for the Triple Entente and the Allies which could then lead to them building weapons for their security and own military as an independent nation.
While building alliances with other countries, Canada started getting its own seat in important events like the League of Nations.
Both opinions lead to the success of the war and independence of our nation
During and after World War II, Canada started being recognized by other countries for their weapons on land, air and sea.
Opinions on War
The Lee- Enfield No. 4 Mk. 1 was the standard rifle of the Canadian army.
The English felt it was their duty to fight for Canada and their homeland Britain during WWI
The French did not want to fight in the war which they thought had nothing to do with Canada
Invented weapons like the Bren Light Machine Gun, Thompson SMG, PIAT and Vickers.
Although Canada made its own weapons, bullets were sometimes supplied by Britain.
Impact on Canada
Events Between WWI and WWII
The French Canadian views about worrying about our own nation led to a greater independence from Britain
The English Canadian views about fighting for Britain and Canada against the Triple Alliance led to the success of the war
The re-election of Prime Minister Borden led to conscription (mandatory enlistment)
Conscription led to 130,000 men being enlisted with 25,000 being sent over seas
Although it contributed to the success of the war it divided the English from the French Canadians
Efforts in the home front lead to the success of both wars and a greater autonomy as a nation
Granville street, Vancouver, 1920
The economy begins to improve in the 1920's and the U.S. invest in Canadian businesses.
Many Branch Plants established in Canada.
"The Big Three" dominated the automotive industry: Chrysler, General Motors and Ford.
Canada no longer had to rely on Britain for finances as they could prosper on their own
Mobility, Tourism, and Communications, increased in Canada with the new prosperous state the country was in.
Canadians were anxious to participate - unknowing of what was to come
Canada had no choice other than to join the war, supporting Britain, but Britain needed Canada's manpower, munitions, along with many other aspects that Canada provided
The battles Canada fought in proved that the nation had the ability to support itself as well as help support another nation, showing that Canada no longer needed to be dependent on Britain
Battle of the Atlantic
Canada supplied food and military supplies to Britain as they were almost completely dependent upon it
Media included films, magazine articles, radio programs, political speeches , and posters
Battle of Ortona
Between Germans and the Allies
1,375 Canadians deaths
The Chanak Incident of 1922 was an important example of Canada's increasing independence from Great Britain.
Canadian victory- considered one of the greatest during this war
Turks attacked British troops who were protecting the strait linking the Mediterranean to the Black Sea after World War I .
Britain asked Canada for help to invade Turkey but King refused to support Britain.
Notice for National registration (Conscription)
30,000 Canadians went along with American, and British soldiers
Attack had been kept a secret from Germans
The Allies had air and naval support
They took all the failures they learned from Dieppe - tried and planned new tactics
Very poorly planned attack by having Canadians march across open fields- Canadians were easy targets
In 1944, there was 1 million woman working full time.
National Organization For Woman created in 1966
This helped show that Canada was now supporting Britain, rather than Britain supporting Canada
Henri Bourassa (French political leader) telling French Canadians to vote against conscription at the referendum on Feb.11, 1942
Mackenzie King insisted that Canada be allowed to sign an international treaty without the signature of a British Representative (Halibut Treaty)
King publicly challenged Britain over its influence on Canada's internal politics (King-Byng Crisis)
Canadians were sent to attack the Netherlands
The King-Byng Crisis
Canadians defeated Germans in Groningen
Toronto newspaper announcing the victory of the allies
William Lyon Mackenzie King requested Parliament to be dissolved and a new election to be held, but Julian Byng refused..
Mackenzie eventually got what he wanted and no Governor General could ever refuse the advice of a prime minister.
Canadians progressed to other cities, surrounding the Germans and Germany shortly after surrendered
The Halibut Treaty
An agreement in 1923 by Canadians and Americans concerning fishing rights in the northern Pacific Ocean.
This treaty regulated the harvest of halibut and was the first treaty negotiated by Canada, independent of Britain.
Britain tried to sign the treaty along with Canada but William Lyon Mackenzie King would not allow it
Events after WWII
increased spending in services during King Government
major veteran's benefit program, family allowances, farm price supports, compulsory collective bargaining , and national housing
1946, a health insurance policy was put into consideration
Authority over Citizens
1946, Canada established the Canadian Citizenship Act.
Separated Canadian citizenship from British nationality
This act was eventually replaced in 1977 by The Canadian Citizen Act, 1976
War Measures Act established in 1914, It allowed the Canadian government emergency powers in the case of war
it has been used three times: WWI,WWII and the October Crisis in 1970
Canadian soldiers comes back home after WWII
Baby boom in Canada from 1945 to 1965.
Over 400, 000 babies born annually.
The United Nations began in 1945
Resembles the League of Nations but with a more universal membership
As WWII was drawing to a close, a UN Charter was drawn up by 50 countries, including Canada, in San Francisco.
Designed to promote international co-operation among countries for common interests
Promotes peace, security, economic development, social justice and fundamental human rights and freedoms.
Canada's national housing agency
Statue of Westminster
Balfour Report, 1926, was the conclusion of an Imperial Conference committee
Conference was led by Lord Balfour, a British Cabinet minister and former prime minister,
Report declared that Britain and its Dominions (Canada) were equal in status, but united by a common allegiance to the crown (British Commonwealth of Nations)
Balfour Report led to the Statue of Westminster Act
Statute of Westminster, 11 Dec 1931, was a British law clarifying the powers of Canada's Parliament and those of the other Dominions,
Granted the former colonies full legal freedom except in those areas where they chose to remain under British law (British North America Act)
Until this time the British government had certain ill-defined powers, and ultimately overriding authority, over Dominion legislation.
Made Britain and Canada constitutionally equal in status
The first page of the Statue of Westminster
A Ford Model T
Statue of Westminster
Significant economic events
The Constitution Act, 1982 was created on 17 April 1982
Created by the Trudeau government
Brought the responsibility and authority over the Constitution of Canada from Britain to Canada
The Act forms a part of the Constitution of Canada and is itself comprised of 7 parts
The Act is signed by Queen Elizabeth II
Constitution Act (1982)
Cold War roughly around 1947-53
Cool relations between the Western powers (Canada, Britain, and US) and communist countries dominated by the USSR
Started by the reluctance of the US and Britain to accept the extension of Soviet control over eastern Europe at the end of WWII.
Canada's position in the war was determined by its disagreement of the totalitarian Soviet government and Canada's economic, cultural and strategic links to the US and Britain
Canada's participation in WWI and WWII led to many significant events
These events can be categorized in the home front, economy, international status, Canadian battles, growth in government, events between WWI and WWII , and events after WWII.
These events led to greater autonomy for Canada.
Helped create better strategies by learning what didn't work within the first few days
Was very well planned, resulting in an advance for the Allies
The Allies won, but created a trench warfare that continued long after
The town captured was of little value to either side, but a sign of of reputation
Allies eventually defeated Germans after years of each side gaining an advantage
Thoroughly planned attack that was rehearsed, with troops being trained well
This was a strategic area of land that the Germans controlled since 1914