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Ergonomics

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Daniel McAuley

on 9 May 2014

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Transcript of Ergonomics

Ergonomics
By: Brent Droege, Kevin Fradeneck, Ryan MacDonald, Daniel McAuley, Giuseppe Failla

The Basics
"The study of people's efficiency in their working environment."
Physical
Cognitive
Organizational
In essence it is the study of designing equipment and devices that fit the human body and its cognitive abilities.
3 Domains of Specialization:
Physical
Cognitive
Organizational
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has found substantial evidence that ergonomics programs can cut workers' compensation costs, increase productivity and decrease employee turnover.
There are many specializations within these broad categories.
References
Concerned with human anatomy, and some of the anthropometric, physiological and bio mechanical characteristics as they relate to physical activity. Injuries are often a focal point.
Has to do with how we perceive information and make decisions
Good cognitive designs include simple displays
Present images clearly
optimize human well-being and system performance
The principles of physical ergonomics have been widely used in the design of both consumer and industrial products.
Focuses mainly on the characteristics of the human mind and how it relates to activity and interactions in the work place, as well as how information is obtained, used, stored and recalled
Cognitive Example
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs) result in persistent pain, loss of functional capacity and work disability.
Every year 1.8 million U.S. workers experience WRMDs and nearly 600,000 of the injuries are serious enough to cause workers to miss work.
Many ergonomically designed products are used or recommended to treat pressure-related chronic pain.
In addition physical disorders that develop over time such as arthritis (both chronic and temporary) or carpal tunnel syndrome can be avoided by implementing ergonomics early on.
concerned with the optimization of socio-technical systems, including their organizational structures, policies, and processes.

includes communication, crew resource management, work design, work systems, design of working times, teamwork, participatory design, community ergonomics, cooperative work, new work programs, virtual organizations, telework, and quality management.

By evaluating (or designing) the organizational system with ergonomic principles you can optimize the productivity as a whole.
Organizational ergonomics remains to be a very important part of the business workplace as organizational ergonomics remains responsible for both workplace productivity and efficiency.
The Ergonomic Keyboard
An ergonomic keyboard is a computer keyboard designed with ergonomic considerations to minimize muscle strain and a host of related problems.
Typically these keyboards for two-handed typists are constructed in a V shape, to allow right and left hands to type at a slight angle more natural to the human form.
Benefits of being organized in the workplace

Improves efficiency
Improves aesthetics of environment
Time management
Improve quality of work
Three dimensions of Cognitive Ergonomics
usefullness
usability
acceptance
Once accustomed to design, it can reduce strain and increase typing speed, BUT can be quite costly w/ average prices around $250, hundreds more for higher-end models.
The objectives of CE is to shorten the time to accomplish tasks,
reduce the number of mistakes made, reduce learning time, and improve people's satisfaction with a system.
An easy example of this would be the way your stove top is arranged. The dials are placed to correlate with the burner they ignite.


The Ergonomic Office Chair
Height: easily adjustable, 16-21 inches off floor, feet flat, thighs horizontal, arms even with desk
Width/Depth: 17-20 inches wide, deep enough that user can sit comfortably with back against back-rest and 2-4 inches from back of knees to seat.
The design of an office environment to minimize distractions and maximize productivity and performance
It is economically responsible to be organized as it saves both time and money
Tracking work progress
Helps to establish sense of trust and and professionalism.
Average American spends one hour per day looking for things, or about 15 days per yer.
Lumbar Support: should be adjustable so each user can get the proper fit to support inward curve of lower back. ESSENTIAL
Organizational Benefits
Material: enough padding to sit comfortably for extended periods. Cloth fabric that breathes.
"Organizational Ergonomics - Overview." Organizational Ergonomics - Overview. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 May 2014.
Robert, J., & Brangier, É. (2012). Prospective ergonomics: origin, goal, and prospects. Work, 415235-5242

Shaik, A., SripathiRao, B., Husain, A., & LinnetteD'Sa, J. (2013). Effectiveness of Ergonomics Awareness Training Programme in Minimizing The Ergonomic Risk Factors in Dental Surgeons. Advanced Engineering Forum, 10148-153.

Vidal, M., Guizze, C., Bonfatti, R., & Silva e Santos, M. (2012). Ergonomic sustainability based on the ergonomic maturity level measurement. Work, 412721-2729

Oguzhan, Erdinic, and Paul H.P. Yeow. "Proving External Validity of Ergonomics and Quality Relationship through Review of Real-world Case Studies." International Journal of Production Resarch (2011): 949-62. Business Source Premier [EBSCO]. Web. 4 May 2014.
Ergonomic Furniture
Summary
Ergonomic furniture such as desks are known to
improve the functionality of ones work space, as well as known to increase productivity and efficiency by keeping all work materials in a very reachable space in the office.

Ergonomic desk such as these are created in such a way that they keep all office items within arms reach, which in turn creates a more comfortable work environment for those in an office setting.
"The study of people's efficiency in their working environment and the study of designing equipment, other devices that fit the human body, and its cognitive abilities."
Ergonomics is so important, multiple Safety and Health Administrations were established
(OSHA)
- Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(NIOSH)
- National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
(TLV)
- Threshold Limited Values &
(BEI)
- Biological Exposure Indices
3 Domains of Specialization
Physical
- human body's responses to physical and physiological work demands. Constant strain injuries from repetition, vibration, force, and posture are the most common types of issues
Cognitive
- characteristics of the human mind and how that relates to activity and interactions as well as how information is obtained, used, stored and recalled
Organizational
- optimization of social technical systems dealing with the work related subjects of: communication; teamwork; resource management; work design and elements of people
Ergonomic Benefits
improved devices
improved in productivity
improved in quality
improved in overall safety culture
Full transcript