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By Jack Baldwin

Jack Baldwin

on 15 October 2012

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A presentation on the types of guidance and their impact upon effective performance and participation. Types of Guidance There are four types of guidance used by a teacher or coach to help the learning process. VISUAL MECHANICAL VERBAL MANUAL And VISUAL This is used at all stages of learning but is most useful and effective in the cognitive/early stages of learning. Visual guidance helps the learner create a mental image of the skill that needs to be learned. Practical demonstrations prove extremely effective in portraying information about the necessary stages of the skill. The teacher or coach could demonstrate, for example, the approach for a volleyball smash, showing the first long step (with your opposite foot) past the 3 metre line, followed by the 2 quick and sharp (1-2) steps. The teacher could explain the most effective technique as a "1, 1-2" or a "Right, Left-Right", and demonstrate that the last 2 steps must be hard and fast in order to obtain a reasonable height on the jump. Visual aids such as posters or diagrams are another form of visual guidance. These are useful for highlighting the technical stages, specifically in complex skills. These diagrams, however, lose their impact and therefore have limited use. Here are some drawbacks to visual guidance. The teacher/coach must ensure that visual guidance through demonstration is accurate. If they are unable to provide a good demonstration, they may need to use a video of a specialist in that particular sport, or ask someone else to demonstrate. Some more complex skills may have too much information in them for the learner to understand from a demonstration. Static visual aids may not provide a lot of information about movement patterns and may not keep learner's attention. VERBAL This is a method often used in conjunction with visual guidance to direct the learner further. In order for the performer to understand and remember the skill properly, verbal guidance should be clear and concise. Verbal guidance could include a team talk by the coach. If the information conveyed is detailed and complex, verbal guidance is thought to be more effective with advanced learners in the autonomous phase. The teacher or coach must ensure that the learner has understood and can remember what has been said as well as applying it to the skill movement. Here are some drawbacks of verbal guidance. FOR EXAMPLE... The teacher or coach has to be able to put across information to the learners and the learners have to apply the information received to the skill being learned. If the teacher/coach struggles to do this, the guidance is somewhat pointless. The amount of information given has to be limited - otherwise the learner will struggle to remember everything said and consequently ignore some vital aspects of the technique. Some more complex and technical skills can be difficult to describe concisely and learners become bored. MANUAL This form of guidance involves the teacher or coach physically altering the body of the learner through the correct pattern of movement. FOR EXAMPLE... A coach could manually guide a performer through a forehand tennis shot. This type of guidance is extremely simple and does not have any significant drawbacks besides being difficult to carry out with groups of performers. MECHANICAL Mechanical guidance involves the use of equipment to help support the learner whilst practicing the skill. FOR EXAMPLE... The use of floats in swimming help learners to develop and understand the importance of the feet whilst swimming by holding the float out in front with your hands and just kicking to move in the water. Manual and mechanical guidance are very helpful in the early stages of learning and particularly in allowing the learner to develop a kinaesthetic sense of the movement. They are also very useful in giving confidence to and ensuring safety for the learner particularly where there is an element of danger in the skill, for example rock climbing. It is important that the learner does not become dependent on this form of guidance, so it must be removed as soon as possible. Disadvantages of mechanical guidance include... The feel of the movement that is experienced with this guidance is different to the actual movement, so it is important that the learner should not become too familiar with the "altered feel". Mechanical guidance is also designed to eliminate errors, which means that it does not give the learner an opportunity to correct mistakes in the technique. Kinaesthetic (kin-ess-thet-ic)
--------------------------------- A learning style where the performer carries out a physical activity to get a feel for the skill movement being learned.
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