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Introduction to Criminology
Transcript of Introduction to Criminology
Origin: c1764 Key thinkers:
Cesare Beccaria CORE IDEAS
People choose to commit crime after weighing the beneﬁts and costs of their actions.Crime can be deterred by certain, severe, and swift punishment.
Rational Choice Theory,
Routine Activities Theory,
Incapacitation Modern Outgrowths ORIGIN: c 1810
FOUNDERS: Franz Joseph Gall, J. K. Lavater, Cesare Lombroso, Enrico Ferri, POSITIVIST THEORY Physiogonomists
"manie sans delire"
Biological Positivism Quetelet
CRIME IS NORMAL?! Social Positivism CORE IDEAS
Some people have biologicaland mental traits that make them crime prone.These traits are inherited and are present atbirth. Mental and physical degeneracies are thecause of crime. MODERN OUTGROWTHS
Biosocial andPsychological Theory, Cognitive Theory,Behavioral Theory, Evolutionary Theory, ArousalTheory Albion W. Small ( 1854–1926)
THE CHICAGO SCHOOL (SOCIOLOGICAL POSITIVISM) pioneered research on the social ecology of the city.
Neighbourhood conditions, and not individual pathologies, inﬂuence and shape the direction of crime rates. Socio-Psychological Views 1930s and 1940s An individual’s relationship to important social processes, such as education, family life, and peer relations, is the key to understanding human behaviour. LEARNED BEHAVIOUR + LACK OF SOCIAL CONTROL
= FAILED SOCIALISATION = CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR
CONFLICT THEORY / MARXIST THEORY 1960s Capital Bourgeoisie vs Proletariat anti-establishment counterculture movement civil rights movement women's rights movement Marxist-based critical criminology - capitalist economic system produces the conditions that support a high crime rate INTEGRATING DIVERSE PERSPECTIVES DEVELOPMENTAL CRIMINOLOGY CONTEMPORARY CRIMINOLOGY Initiation and continuity of a criminal career was a developmental process inﬂuenced by both internal and external situations, conditions, and circumstances. Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck Rational Choice ( - Classical Criminology)
Biological/Psychological Criminology ( - Biological Positivism)
Structural and social ecological theory - anomie, strain theory, labelling theory ( - Social Positivism)
Critical criminology (- Marxist/Conflict thoery)