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Cell Division

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Natalie Guest

on 31 January 2013

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Transcript of Cell Division

1. Mitosis B. Cell Division Prophase Metaphase Chromosomes, attached to the kinetochore fibers, move to the center of the cell Anaphase Sister chromatids are pulled apart to opposite poles of the cell by kinetochore fibers, resulting in an identical set of DNA in each new cell Telophase Chromatids at opposite poles
Spindle disassembles
Nuclear envelope forms around each new set of chromatids
Nucleolus reappears 2. Cytokinesis (Cytokinesis is the second part of cell division) This Week: Cell Division Why do our cells need to divide? Plus, some need to divide more often than others. skin vs. nerve Well, first, one large cell has trouble obtaining nutrients through diffusion....But many small cells... How do cells divide? Make a "Cell Division Book" Instructions:
1. Take 5 pieces of "book" paper
2. Follow the instructions on the paper: Cut on solid lines and fold on dashed lines.
3. Label your cover "Cell Division"
4. Use pg. 245 to help you draw the cell cycle on the cover window
5. On each "book" page, draw the phases of mitosis in the order in which they occur.*DO NOT include interphase or cytokinesis*
6. Color each drawing with consistent colors (Basically, if your cell membrane is blue on pg.1, then it should be blue on every page).
7. Use pages 246-47, your computer lab notes, and your lecture notes to write descriptions for each of the phases of mitosis. During the cell cycle, the cell grows, replicates its DNA, and divides into two daughter cells The cell spends most of its life in 'interphase'
During this phase, the cell grows (G1), DNA is replicated (S), and the cell prepares for mitosis (G2) A. Interphase From here on out, the majority of our focus will be on what happens to DNA as the cell divides There are 2 parts of cell division 1. Gap 1 (G1) 1st growth stage after cell division
Cells mature by making more cytoplasm & organelles
Cell carries on its normal metabolic activities
DNA is completely uncoiled and referred to as chromatin I. 2. Synthesis (S) DNA is replicated, resulting in 2 copies
All DNA is currently still in the form of chromatin DNA 3. Gap 2 (G2) The cell will continue to grow and prepare to divide by producing more cytoplasm and centriole pairs (a.k.a. karyokinesis)
Division of the nucleus
Only occurs in eukaryotes
Has four stages DNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid) encodes the instructions for making all cell parts; essentially, it is the blueprint for an organism's life (body parts, function, etc.) Chromatin in nucleus condenses to form visible chromosomes
Two DNA copies make up one chromosome (each individual copy is called a chromatid) and they are held together by a centromere
Spindle fibers, called kinetochores, attach to the centromere of each chromosome
Nuclear membrane & nucleolus are broken down Chromosomes are now lined up at the "equator" known as the metaphase plate Division of the cytoplasm
Division of cell into two, identical halves called daughter cells
In plant cells, cell plate forms at the equator to divide cell
In animal cells, cleavage furrow forms to split cell So in the end... Human Cells A karyotype is a photograph of all the chromosomes in an organism's cell. Humans have 46 chromosomes: 23 from Mom and 23 from Dad
If 1 of our skin cells divides, how many cells will result after 1 division?
How many chromosomes will each daughter cell have?
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