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Potential barriers to participation and solutions to increas
Transcript of Potential barriers to participation and solutions to increas
Only 40% of UK participate in sport more than 12 times a year. Compared to 80% in Finland.
Only 32% of adults in UK exercise for more than 30 minutes five times a week
Young white males are most likely to take part in sport and physical activity.
Participation falls dramatically after leaving school and continues to drop with age.
The more active in sport and physical activity you are at a young age, the more likely you are to continue to participate throughout your life -
Long life participation.
GENDER - STATISTICS
* In Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, 45% of participants were female.
* In Athens 2004 Olympic Games, 40% of British team were women.
* In the International Olympic Committee (IOC) only 14% are women,
* Women’s top soccer is still semi-professional.
* Before 2007, men’s prize money at Wimbledon was more than women’s.
* Top women earn only 14% as do top men, and find it harder to get sponsorship.
* Women’s boxing, pole vault, triple jump, hammer, weight lifting only allowed since 1987.
* Female sport has less social status than male sport.
* Females get less media space or time than males in the UK.
* Media focus on women’s appearance rather than sport.
18.6% of adults from black and other ethnic minority groups participate compared to that of 21.2% of white men.
25% soccer players are black. Hardly any asians.
50% UK athletics power event competitors are black.
Black and Asian people are discriminated against in society. This is reflected in media coverage.
There are currently no black or asian performers in the UK's tennis top ten.
In UK rugby, there are very limited black players.
there is no research evidence that Afro-Caribbean people have higher fast twitch muscle, or less subcutaneous fat resulting in expectations from stereotypes being incorrect within sport.
lack of black role models in sport discourages new participants.
low socio-economic status of many black afro-carribean people prevents participation
Reasons for low female participation rates in active recreation.
Less media coverage
Sport traditionally the preserve of males
Traditionally less money and power
Existing role models
Solutions to low participation rates
More facilities for women
More and better media coverage
Health related activities
Better links between schools and clubs
SEX DISCRIMINATION ACT 1975
Sports that have relatively high levels of participation among certain ethnic minority groups. these include:
Weight training among Black males
Running/ jogging among Black males and Black Africans (higher than the general male population)
Badminton by Chinese men
Cricket by Pakistani, Black and other Indian men
Basketball among Black Caribbean and Black Africans.
Women Role Models
RESULTS OF BARRIERS TO PARTICIPATION
individuals not realizing their full potential
Higher risk of unemployment
Cost to the tax payer:
Poorer physical health
Cost to the tax payer:
Crime and fear of crime affect the most deprived communities
Cost to tax payer:
expenditure in 2001-02 totalled £30.7 billion in income support, housing benefit and so on.
Cost to the economy:
This act made sex discrimination unlawful in employment, training, education and the provision of goods, facilities and services, that is, a female should be treated in the same way as a male in similar circumstances.
A lack of skilled workers, resulting in a productivity gap between the UK and its international competitors
However, competitive sport is excluded from the at. Separate competitions for men and women are allowed where 'the physical strength, stamina or physique puts her at a disadvantage to the average man.'
Cost of school exclusions estimatedt £406 million
Cost to the economy:
Lack of customers- low income reduces the nations spending power
The Women's Sport Foundation
A report calculated that if one in ten young offenders received effective intervention, the annual saving would be in excess of
Founded in 1974 by tennis legend, Billie Jean King, the Women's Sports Foundation (WSF) is dedicated to advancing the lives of girls and women through sports and physical activity.
They are committed to improving, increasing and promoting opportunities for women and girls, in all roles and at all levels, in sport, fitness and physical activity.
The WSF became a registered charity in 1997. At present, the WSF is funded primarily by Sport England. They have a quarterly newsletter and they also receive a small amount of additional income via other grants, donations and supporter subscriptions.
How have the WSF promoted women's sport?
Since 1984, the WSF has been involved in a variety of projects to promote women's sport. These have included:
The WSF Awards for Girls and Young Women
The National Action Plan for Women's and Girl's Sport and Physical Activity (1999-2001)
Women into High Performance Coaching Project
The factor that seems to have the greatest impact on female participation is the growing emphasis placed on health and fitness and the toned, slim stereotypical female form.
"A physical or mental condition, that limits a persons movements, senses or activities."
The Football Association
There are a number of different names when refering to sports performed by the disabled, Such as:
Sports for the disabled
Football is the number one sport for girls and women. There are now 61,000 women competing in clubs affiliated to the Football Association (FA). There are 40,000 more U14 girls playing at school than 10 years ago.
However, there is a lack of career prospects for women's football. Therefore, the FA has put in place a series of initiatives to increase opportunities:
In 1997 it launched its Talent Development Plan for Women's Football
Nineteen Women's Football Academies - 16+ years
Establishment of 42 Centers of Excellence to develop 10-16 year olds
If a sport is adapted, it is essential that the activity is recognizable as the original sport it is being associated with.
'what can happen when people or areas suffer from a combination of linked problems, e.g. unemployment, poor skills, low income etc.
Three sided game with the aim to score a goal by rolling the ball along the foor into your opponent's goal. Adapted features are:
All players wear eye masks to ensure all players are equal when i comes to visual perception
There is a bell inside the ball
The playing court has tactile court markings
The Social Exclusion Unit
The rules, height of ring and court size are exactly the same but when it comes to dribbling; two pushes and one bounce replaces the 'bouncing while traveling rule in ambulant basketball
Some technique rules are more flexible and for visually impaired performers, they may require a tap on the head when nearing the end of a lane.
The Social Exclusion Unit was set up by the government in 1997. Their aim was to 'reduce social exclusion by finding joined-up solutions to interconnected problems.'
The term 'joined-up solutions' refers to the governments belief in recent decades that many social policies interrelate and affect each other. It involves developing working partnerships among different organisations.
Over the recent years, the government has recognised that these social issues often interrelate and seperate policies are a false economy.
The government has aimed to set up a few policies with the aim to avoid social exclusion and get not just the disabled but also other minorities recognized and involved. they aim to do this through:
'Movement of individuals up or down the social class structure.'
putting the individual at the center of its policies
recognizing and support diversity by striving to meet the widest range of needs
seeking to achieve the best 'match' between provision and the needs of the individual.
providing staff training and evelopment
laising with other relevant organizations and fostering 'joined-up thinking'
When subordinate groups are discriminated against, their oppurtunities for social mobility and participation in a variety of sports can be limited.
Social mobility has increased throughout the 20th century. The moddle class expanded while the working class declined in size. However, in recent decades, the improved oppurtunities enjoyedby greater numbers of children have begun to slow down or even halted in some cases.
Any sporting policies will need to take into account of these trends in order to tackle social exclusion. The National Strategy fir Neighberhood Renewal is an important part of the government's plan to build socially inclusive communities.
All local authorities have a remit to narrow the gap that exists between the most deprived areas and the rest of the country.
How can opportunities for people with disabilities be improved?
Raising awareness among the disabled about opportunities already available
raising awareness among the general public about disability issues
specialist training programmes for staff who will be involved
making access to and within facilites more manageable
adapting even more sports
Disability Sport England
Participation rate in sort varies across social groups. The link between gender and social class appeards to be increaaing significantly when looking at participation rates.
In general, individuals from lover socio-economic groups have poorer health and mortality rates than those in other groups.
Therefore, the benefits of participation in physical activity are particularly important for this group.
This group is very likely to suffer from social exclusion as they have less power, less disposable income etc.
This can affect their quality of life and what they can afford to do.
The working class
can also affect how this groupd may adapt to middle-class sporting environments.
Feelings of low self-esteem and isolation from major social institutions are all factors that make this group difficult to mobilise.
Low Socio-Economic Groups