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# The Historical Developement of The Concept of The Gravitational Force

7th Period Project for Pre-ap Physics

by

Tweet## Sarah Wynn

on 9 September 2013#### Transcript of The Historical Developement of The Concept of The Gravitational Force

By Serina Smith, Destiny Blair, Jahnaya Clarke, Dana Buonya, Jh’on West, Sarah Wynn The Historical Development of the Concept of the Gravitational Force Kelper's Three Laws Of Motion Newton’s Universal Law of Gravity Cavendish Experiment What is gravitational lensing? How does gravity correspond to the bending of the space-time fabric? How does gravity bend light? What is a black hole? All planets move in elliptical orbits with the sun at one focus.A line joining planet to the sun sweeps out the equal areas in equal times.The square of the period of any planet is proportional to the cube of the semimajor axis of its orbit. +Every two objects attract each other with a gravitational force given by F = m1m2G/r2+F is the force between the two objects+m1 is the mass first object in kg+m2 is the mass of the second object in kg+r is the distance between the two objects in meters+G is 6.67 x 10-11 Cavendish experiment, measurement of the force of gravitational attraction between pairs of lead spheres, which thus allowed the first calculation of the value of the gravitational constant, G, the number expressing the proportionality between the attractive force exerted by two objects and the ratio of the product of their masses to the square of the distance between them (Newton’s law of universal gravitation). Gravitomagnetism is the magnetic field produce by a spinning ball of charge. A gravitational lens is formed when the light from a very distant (such as a quasar) is "bent" around a massive object (such as a cluster of galaxies) between the source object and the observer.A gravitational lens is formed when the light from a very distant (such as a quasar) is "bent" around a massive object (such as a cluster of galaxies) between the source object and the observer. Einstein predicted that light should be bent by gravity. Sir Arthur Eddington lead an expedition to photograph the 1919 Total Eclipse of the Sun. The pictures revealed that the stars light passed through the sun, their positions had proved that their light has been bent. A black hole is a concentrated area in space where at the center is a mass, which has a gravitational force that is so strong nothing, not even light can escape it.So, yes, black holes are very much so real, just extremely difficult to define. The gravitational force between the Earth and the Moon.

M1 = 7.35 x 1022 kg

M2 = 6 x 1024 kgG = 6.67 x 10-11 N

r = 3.844 x 108 m

F = (7.35 x 1022)(6 x 1024)(6.67 x 10-11 )/(3.844 x 108 )2

F = 1.99 N The experiment was performed in 1797–98 by the English scientist Henry Cavendish. He followed a method prescribed and used apparatus built by his countryman, the geologist John Michell, who had died in 1793. The apparatus employed was a torsion balance, essentially a stretched wire supporting spherical weights. Attraction between pairs of weights caused the wire to twist slightly. The experiment was popularly known as weighing the Earth because determination of G permitted calculation of the Earth’s mass. Gravity is the negative slope in the space-time fabric. Einstein tells us that all gravitational forces correspond to a bending of space time; the "twist" is gravitomagnetism. The force of gravity is directly dependent on the mass of the 2 objects, therefore light could not be bent by gravity. What is the Schwarzschild radius? The Schwarzschild radius is the radius of an object or planet that when crushed, becomes a black hole. For example, if the sun was crushed to 2.5km, it would then become a black hole, with 2.5km being the Schwarzschild radius. General Relativity When Einstein devised his theory, he had three experiments in mind to test its predictions. One was the gravitational bending of starlight around the sun.

The second prediction is the precession of planetary orbits about the sun.

The third experimentally verified prediction is the slowing down of time due to gravity. Serina Smith Jh'on West Jahnaya Clarke Destiny Blair Dana Buonya Jh'on West Sarah Wynn Jahnaya Clarke Serina Smith

Full transcriptM1 = 7.35 x 1022 kg

M2 = 6 x 1024 kgG = 6.67 x 10-11 N

r = 3.844 x 108 m

F = (7.35 x 1022)(6 x 1024)(6.67 x 10-11 )/(3.844 x 108 )2

F = 1.99 N The experiment was performed in 1797–98 by the English scientist Henry Cavendish. He followed a method prescribed and used apparatus built by his countryman, the geologist John Michell, who had died in 1793. The apparatus employed was a torsion balance, essentially a stretched wire supporting spherical weights. Attraction between pairs of weights caused the wire to twist slightly. The experiment was popularly known as weighing the Earth because determination of G permitted calculation of the Earth’s mass. Gravity is the negative slope in the space-time fabric. Einstein tells us that all gravitational forces correspond to a bending of space time; the "twist" is gravitomagnetism. The force of gravity is directly dependent on the mass of the 2 objects, therefore light could not be bent by gravity. What is the Schwarzschild radius? The Schwarzschild radius is the radius of an object or planet that when crushed, becomes a black hole. For example, if the sun was crushed to 2.5km, it would then become a black hole, with 2.5km being the Schwarzschild radius. General Relativity When Einstein devised his theory, he had three experiments in mind to test its predictions. One was the gravitational bending of starlight around the sun.

The second prediction is the precession of planetary orbits about the sun.

The third experimentally verified prediction is the slowing down of time due to gravity. Serina Smith Jh'on West Jahnaya Clarke Destiny Blair Dana Buonya Jh'on West Sarah Wynn Jahnaya Clarke Serina Smith