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Chapter 4: Human Learning

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Joy Watson

on 17 July 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 4: Human Learning

How do we learn?
Carl Rogers
Robert Gagne
Systematic Forgetting
Chapter 4: Human Learning
Proactive Inhibition
Retroactive Inhibition
Failure to retain material because of interfering effects of similar material learned AFTER the learning task.
Cognitive Pruning
Elimination of unnecessary clutter and a clearing of the way for more material to enter the cognitive field.
Subtractive Bilingualism
Native Language Forgetting

Happens where learners rely more and more on a second language
Research on Language Attrition
Probable causes of loss of second language: some aspects of language are more vulnerable to forgetting.
Analyzed human behavior in general, including the learning processes
Implications for education:
Goal of facilitation of change and learning in education
Learning how to learn is most important
Trust in students - in moderation
Freedom v. Competitiveness
Types of Learning
Signal Learning - Pavlov's Dog
Stimulus - Response
Verbal Association
Multiple Discrimination
Concept Learning
Principle Learning
Problem Solving
Terms Describing Interaction of Previous Learning with Present Event
Language Aptitude
Innate or Nurtured?
Distinct Ability?
Cognitive Ability?
Does age matter?
Can it be reliably measured?
Predictive of Success?
Characteristics of Successful Language Learners
Risk - Taking Behavior
Memory Efficiency
Intelligent Guessing
Ambiguity Tolerance
Measuring Aptitude
Mid 20th Century
Mid-Twentieth Century
MLAT (Modern Language Aptitude Test
PLAB (Pimsleur Language Aptitude Test
SLAB (Defense Language Aptitude Battery
Decline of these forms of assessment due to limitations
Resurgence of interest in language aptitude tests
Expanded Process
Howard Gardner
Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Robert Sternberg
Daniel Goleman
Emotional Intelligence
Audio-Lingual or Army Method
Draws from Behaviorist Principles
Dialogue Form
Mimicry, Drill, Memorization
Little Grammar Infection
Little use of L1
Wilga Rivers
Community Language Learning
Teacher Facilitated
Puts Carl Rogers' Theory into Action
Behaviorist - Pavlov
Believes in a more positive approach
No punishments
Programmed instruction
Behaviorism - Watson
Believes that conditioning occurs through interaction with the environment
Cognitive - Ausubel
Rote vs. Meaningful Learning
Constructivist - Rogers
Learn how to learn
different strategies
community of learners
Learning process was associated between stimuli and reflex
Ex. : Conditioned Response
Operant Behavior - Skinner
Contextual Ability
Componential Ability
Experiential Ability
Seat of intellectual functioning
Management of emotions: drives and controls mental or cognitive functioning
Failure to retain material because of interfering effects of similar material learned BEFORE the learning task.
In your group, brainstorm typical language classroom activities or techniques that foster your type of intelligence.
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