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Chapter 4: Human Learning
Transcript of Chapter 4: Human Learning
Chapter 4: Human Learning
Failure to retain material because of interfering effects of similar material learned AFTER the learning task.
Elimination of unnecessary clutter and a clearing of the way for more material to enter the cognitive field.
Native Language Forgetting
Happens where learners rely more and more on a second language
Research on Language Attrition
Probable causes of loss of second language: some aspects of language are more vulnerable to forgetting.
Analyzed human behavior in general, including the learning processes
Implications for education:
Goal of facilitation of change and learning in education
Learning how to learn is most important
Trust in students - in moderation
Freedom v. Competitiveness
Types of Learning
Signal Learning - Pavlov's Dog
Stimulus - Response
Terms Describing Interaction of Previous Learning with Present Event
Innate or Nurtured?
Does age matter?
Can it be reliably measured?
Predictive of Success?
Characteristics of Successful Language Learners
Risk - Taking Behavior
Mid 20th Century
MLAT (Modern Language Aptitude Test
PLAB (Pimsleur Language Aptitude Test
SLAB (Defense Language Aptitude Battery
Decline of these forms of assessment due to limitations
Resurgence of interest in language aptitude tests
Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Audio-Lingual or Army Method
Draws from Behaviorist Principles
Mimicry, Drill, Memorization
Little Grammar Infection
Little use of L1
Community Language Learning
Puts Carl Rogers' Theory into Action
Behaviorist - Pavlov
Believes in a more positive approach
Behaviorism - Watson
Believes that conditioning occurs through interaction with the environment
Cognitive - Ausubel
Rote vs. Meaningful Learning
Constructivist - Rogers
Learn how to learn
community of learners
Learning process was associated between stimuli and reflex
Ex. : Conditioned Response
Operant Behavior - Skinner
Seat of intellectual functioning
Management of emotions: drives and controls mental or cognitive functioning
Failure to retain material because of interfering effects of similar material learned BEFORE the learning task.
In your group, brainstorm typical language classroom activities or techniques that foster your type of intelligence.