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Cross Linguistic Influences and Learner Language
Transcript of Cross Linguistic Influences and Learner Language
Language Cross-linguistic influence is a term proposed in the 1980s to include such phenomena as "transfer", "interference", "avoidance", "borrowing" and L2-related aspects of language loss'. ( Sharwood Smith & Kellerman, 1986, p. 1) What are Cross-linguistic Influences? -What is learner Language?
-Characteristics of Learner Language
-What do you study when you study Learner Language?
-Stages of Leaner Language Development
- L1 Influence and Learner Language
-Variations of Learner Language Learner Language Learner language is also called “interlanguage.”
"Interlanguage refers to the separateness of a second language learners' system, which has a structurally intermediate status between the native and target languages."(Selinker, 1972) What is Learner Language? Characteristics of Learner Language What types of errors L2 learners make?
How their errors use their TL and their ability to use their TL?
How L2 learners develop their interlanguage?
What factors influence their interlanguage? What do you study when you study Learner Language? 1. Stage of Random Errors (pre-systematic)
John cans sing. John cans to sing. John can singing
2. Emergent Stage (can have backsliding)
Ex. Conversation between NS and L (p. 267)
3. True systematic stage
4. Stabilization / Post-systematic stage Stages of Learner Language Development (Brown,2007) L: I go New York.
NS: You’re going to New York?
L: (doesn’t understand) What?
NS: You will go to New York?
NS: Oh, you went to New York in 1972.
L: Yes, I go 1972. Example of Back-sliding Can help the learning of L2 for parts where the two languages are similar.
L1 may interact with the developmental stage of learner language.
Avoidance of TL with perception TL is distant + different from their L1.
When interlanguage does not cause difficulty in the communication of meaning, it is difficult to get rid of it. (ex. Fossilization) L1 Influence on Learner Language Tools for Teachers: Learner Language 5:30 Comparative Analysis Hypothesis(CAH) Linguists are to explore the observable data only.
Linguists’ task is to describe human language, to point out the structural features of languages.
Languages can be broken down into smaller pieces and units.
Linguistics can describe and regroup these small units in a scientific way.
1940 - 1950: linguists have traveled around the world to collect evidence unique grammar rules. Structuralism Positive transfer
Negative Transfer Repeated stimuli - response behavior, language acquisition by habit formation.
Research focus: explicit observable (behavior) reaction; perception, intuitive concept that belongs to mentalist camp unreasonable exploration areas.
If certain errors can be predicted, they then can be prevented.
SLA: to overcome the influence of the native language and to internalize the rules of the target language. Behaviorism Transference CAH was proposed in 1957 by an American linguist Dr. Robert Lado.
The theory background of CAH is structuralism and behaviorism.
The main obstacle in learning a L2 is caused by L1.
L1 and L2 - similar = easy; different = difficult. Comparative Analysis Hypothesis (CAH) Three assumptions of CAH (Lado, 1957)
1. The major difficulties for learners may be caused by the interference of the L1.
2. The task of comparative analysis is to compare L1 and L2, and to predict the learner‘s difficulties.
3. In order to reduce the influence of L1 interference, textbooks may include language contrasts. Predict difficulties or errors that may occur. Find out comparable points between the two languages. Select and compare certain language rules or structures. Based on grammatical system. Description
Selection Classical procedures
of CAH Weaknesses of CAH Great differences between languages will not necessarily lead to great difficulties in learning.
Research methods; various subject factors (e.g., age, proficiency, etc.); lack of supporting facts.
CAH could be inadequate in predicting language learning errors. - Caused by the contradictions between cognitive abilities of people and language rules - Caused by the interference of L1 - Caused by the Negative Transfer 偏误的来源 1. Interlingual Error
2. Intralingual Error
3. Cognitive Error
4. Training Error - Caused by improper instruction of textbooks, dictionaries or teachers Learners have not yet mastered L2.
Learners’ habit of their L1 and their transfer of their L2. ( Lado 1957)
Result of interference in the learning of L2 from the habits of L1. ( Corder) Why does error happens in learning a second language?
The fact that learners do make errors and these errors can be observed, analyzed, and classified to reveal something of the system operating within the learner. (Brown, 1987) What is error analysis? Examples of L2 learners’ speaking
in English Using of two or more "codes" within
one conversational episode. Example of compensatory error :
code-switching Examples of code-switching 1. Repetition
2. Error correction (explicit correction)
3. Oral teacher feedback
4. Assesment writing for placement
-Holistic coring ( scale 1~6)
-Analytic scoring ( content/ organization/vocab/language use/ mechanism) Making of errors is necessary part of learning process. Correction of error provides the sort of negative evidence to discovery of correct concept of the rule.(Corder) Conclusion Versions of CAH Strong version:
Weak version: Overt and Covert errors
Global errors and Local errors
Categories of errors
Level of Language Question Time
Junhang Xu Knowing what we study when we study learner language, WHY do you think we study it? WHY? Can help assess teaching procedures to see what they can expect to accomplish in the classroom.
Help learners become aware of the stages in their language development.
Providing deeper understanding of errors and that they could be an indication of progress instead of regression. Other ideas?? Personal Experiences? What are the best ways to correct errors in your SLA classroom? Prediction Contrast Any last minute comments or questions? Types of errors 5. Authentic materials
7. Elicitation (self-correction) Description of Errors Understanding Learner language is crucial to understanding our students. Without the comprehension of our students, how can we facilitate their learning? CAH is the fundamental basis of error analysis and a major building block. The hypothesis is still widely used today. Keys in L2 Learning: to overcome the difficulties caused by differences between L1 and L2.
Use CAH to analyze L1 and L2 scientifically and systematically, and to predict learners’ difficulties. CAH(continued) L2 errors can be predicted by contrasting L1 and L2. (Robert Lado & Charles Fries) Not all errors can be traced from L1 interference.
Errors come from the actual language of the learners, rather than being inferred from the contrasts between languages.
Comparative analysis can confirm which errors are caused by the differences between L1 and L2, and which are not. - Developing system
- Systematic (reflects linguistic and psychological process)
- Independent Development of CAH Researchers have broadened their investigation of how transfer interacts with language learning. Researchers focus on the internal factors of language as well as the external factors of language (e.g., social, cultural, individual variables). Transfer across L1 and L2 is one of the most important factors that we must consider, when explaining the outcomes of L2 learning. It is still widely used today. Weaknesses of CAH
(continued) CAH overlook cultural differences.
CAH regards errors just as negative factors, which should be avoid.
According to Chomsky, the process of language learning could be an innovative experience, rather than merely forming habits.
Fatal weakness: solely relying on the analysis of language production to explain psycholinguistic phenomena. Teaching implications We should understand the variations that exist within discourse types across cultural-linguistic groups.(Huang, 2012, Swan & Smith’s, 2001)
We need to raise our own and our students’ awareness of difference between learners’ L1 and TL. (Huang, 2012) Agenda Comparative Analysis Hypothesis (CAH) Learner Language Error Analysis Q & A Discussion question What do you think are the pros and cons of Error analysis and would you use it in your teaching process? Pros of Error Analysis First theory which focuses on learners’ language system. (Ellis,1994)
Proving the learner errors are not entirely due to L1 interference.
Has important implications for teaching. Cons of error analysis The Analysis of Error in Isolation.
The Proper Classification of Identified Errors
Statement of Error Frequency 4. The Identification of Point of Difficulty in the Target Language.
5. The Ascription of Causes to Systematic Errors
6. The Biased Nature of Sampling Procedures.
(Schachter and Celce- Muria, 1977) 1. Native Speaker
2. Saudi Arabian
4. Japanese 1. Difficult to distinguish errors at different stages
2. Hard to observe when L2 learners use avoidance strategies
3. Hard to observe second language acquisition process. Quick survey
In your learning or teaching experience, do you think you or your teachers use CAH in the teaching process? Could you give some examples? Discussion Question The most difficulty thing in L2 learning is nuances which exist between two languages and internal language itself. (Oller & Ziahosseiny, 1970)
In other words, similarity is a source of confusion. Moderate Version Versions of CAH
(continued) We must acknowledge the interplay of individual, instructor-related, and contextual variables that may have roles in learners’ production of the TL. (Huang, 2012) Keep in mind that not all difficulties in language learning are the result of differences between the L1 and TL. Difficulties or errors in L2 learning cannot always be predicted. (Huang, 2012) Teaching implications