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Basic Biology Chapter 3/4 Ecology
Transcript of Basic Biology Chapter 3/4 Ecology
Chapter 3 & 4
Ecology Ecology = the scientific study of interactions among and between organisms and their environment, or surroundings. Levels of Organization (smallest to largest)
A species is a group of organisms that they can breed and produce fertile offspring; (they can have kids that can have kids) A biome is a group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities; ex: tundra, desert
The biosphere contains the combined portions of the planet in which all of life exists; land, air and water. A community is an group of different populations that live in an area
An ecosystem is a collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place and the nonliving, or physical environment Sunlight is the main energy source for life on earth. Energy Flow Producers/Autotrophs – plants, algae, and certain bacteria that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use that energy to produce food Consumers/heterotrophs – organisms that rely on others as their food source and for energy
- herbivores = eat plants
- carnivores = eat animals - omnivores = eat plants and animals
- detritivores = eat dead remains
- decomposers = break down organic matter food chain – steps of energy transfers from producer to consumer
food web – complex interactions of energy transfer in an ecosystem
- 1st trophic level is made of producer, 2nd
herbivores, etc Unlike the one-way flow of energy, matter is recycled within and between ecosystems. Cycles of Matter Chapter 4
Ecosystems and Communities In the atmosphere, temperature, precipitation, and other environmental factors combine to produce weather and climate.
Weather is the day-to-day conditions
Climate is the average year-to-year conditions in a region The Greenhouse Effect - Carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and a few other atmospheric gases trap heat energy and maintain Earth’s temperature range.
greenhouse effect is the natural situation in which heat is retained by the layers of greenhouse gases Latitude- Earth is a sphere tilted on its axis and receives sunlight at different angles throughout the year.
Three main climate zones: polar, temperate and tropical
Heat is transferred around Earth by winds and ocean currents. Ecosystems are influenced by biological & physical factors.
biotic factors = biological influences
abiotic factors = physical, nonliving factors habitat = the area in which an organism lives; biotic and abiotic factors; an organism’s address competition – struggle for resources: water, nutrients, light, food, space
predation – predator catches and feeds off of prey Community interactions symbiosis – “living together” Ecological Succession = series of predictable changes that occurs in a community over time… lichens, mosses, grasses, trees and shrubs Major Biomes
Tropical rain forest – hot and wet year round
Tropical dry forest – warm year round; wet and dry season
Tropical savanna – warm with seasonal rainfall; frequent fires
Desert – low precipitation, can be hot or cold Temperate grassland – warm to hot summers, cold winters
Temperate woodland and shrubland – hot dry summers and cool moist winters
Temperate forest – look outside Northwestern coniferous forest – mild temperatures, lots of precipitation
Boreal forest – long, cold winters; short, mild summers
Tundra – long, cold and dark winters A population is a group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area <-- Possums Meerkats - photosynthesis –water and carbon dioxide →sugar and oxygen
- chemosynthesis – break chemical bonds to produce carbohydrates Make a list in the margin of you paper of different producers. tubeworms - chemosynthesis Make a list of what you see outside:
Abiotic Biotic niche = full range of physical and biological conditions and interactions; organism’s occupation - mutualism = both species benefit; flowers and
insects; ants and aphids - commensalism = one member benefits and
other is neither benefited or harmed; barnacles
and whales; orchids and trees - parasitism = parasite lives on or in a host which
generally weakens the host; tapeworms and
mammals; fees, ticks and mites and mammals