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Nutrition 101: The Basics

Covering the basics of nutrition so people can make sound, healthy eating habits

Chelsey Moore

on 16 January 2014

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Transcript of Nutrition 101: The Basics

Primary source of energy – especially for the nerves
Composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
Things Everyone Should Know...
3 Different Types of Macronutrients (Macros):

The Basics
Fantastical Fats!
3 types of fats found in foods:
Vegetable Oil (more unsaturated) & Animal Fat (more saturated)
Main component of cell membranes in the body
Come from plants & animals
Powerful Protein!
Progress, NOT Perfection
Questions & Other Topics...
Nutrition Talk 101
Protein 1g = 4 calories
Carbs 1g = 4 calories
Fat 1g = 9 calories
Plants store carbs
We break down starch and turn it into glucose
Some starch is not digestible – which is good for colon health
Most fiber we eat isn't digested as we don't have the necessary enzymes to do so. Some is broken down in the large intestine.
Two Types of Fiber
Absorbs water/forms gel
Delays absorption of glucose
Dissolves...it is NOT digested
Slows down digestion – keeps you feeling full

Peas, beans, lentils, oat bran, apples
Insoluble Fiber
Soluble Fiber
Attracts water/speeds up passage of food through intestine
Keeps digestive track clean

Whole wheat, nuts, barley, brown rice, zucchini, broccoli, cabbage, dark leafy vegetables, raisins, grapes, fruit, and root vegetable skins

Glucose = most abundant carb & main energy source
Excess glucose turns into glycogen by the liver
Glucose in blood must be regulated
Two hormones – Insulin & glucoagon control level of glucose in blood

Made in pancreas
Helps cells take in glucose from blood
Stimulates liver to take up glucose and convert it into glycogen
Lowers blood glucose
Also made in pancreas
Breaks down glycogen to glucose
More glucose (energy) available to body
Raises blood glucose
Sufficient energy from carbs prevents production of ketones as alternative energy source
Excessive ketones = high blood acidity + ketoacidosis
High blood acidity damages body tissues

Carbs spare body proteins by preventing their breakdown as energy source
Relying on body protein as a source of energy can, over time, lead to organ damage
Low Carb Diet Issues
GI – foods ability to raise blood glucose levels
Foods with low GI are:
Better for diabetics
Generally higher in fiber
May reduce risk for heart disease and colon cancer

Ezekiel bread
Whole grain vs multi-grain
Glycemic Index (GI)
1 lb of fat – excess of 3500 calories being stored
Lean muscle requires more calories than fat
Look at serving size first
Pay close attention to the total amount of macros
How many gr of carbs come from fiber?
Be wary of high sodium items
What are the first 5 ingredients?
Food Labels
Women should aim for 25g of fiber a day – most average less than 15g per day!
Very energy (calorie) dense
Much of the energy used during rest comes from fat
Used during exercise, especially after glycogen is depleted
Used for energy storage
Make us feel full because
More energy dense
Take longer to digest
Provide energy!
Protect vital organs
Provide insulation
Transport fat soluble vitamin A, D, E, K
Facts about Fat
Omega 3's – 3 Different Types

Alpha-linolenic ALA
Eicosapentaenoic Acid EPA
Docosahexaenoic Acid DHA

EPA & DHA are marine derived
Cannot by synthesized and must be obtained through diet
Alpha-linolenic Acid (omega-3)
Veggie oil
Linolenic Acid (omega-6)
Veggies, nut oils
Essential Fatty Acids
Reduce inflammation throughout your body
Keep your blood from clotting excessively
Maintain the fluidity of your cell membranes
Lower the amount of lipids (fats such as cholesterol and triglycerides) circulating in the bloodstream
Inhibit thickening of the arteries by decreasing endothelial cells' production of a platelet-derived growth factor (the lining of the arteries is composed of endothelial cells)
Reduce the risk of becoming obese and improve the body's ability to respond to insulin by stimulating the secretion of leptin
What can high omega-3 foods do for you?
Salmon, sardines, flax seeds, walnuts, halibut, tuna, tofu
Cardiovascular Disease
Type 2 Diabetes
Dry, itchy skin
Brittle hair and nails
Inability to concentrate & ADHD
Joint pain
Symptoms that Omega-3's are Said to Help
Amino Acids
Large complex molecules made up of various amino acids

20 different amino acids used to make protein
Protein is necessary for the building and repair of body tissues
It produces enzymes, hormones, and other substances the body uses
It regulates body processes, such as water balancing, transporting nutrients, and making muscles contract
Protein keeps the body healthy by resisting diseases that are common to malnourished people.
Incomplete vs. Complete
What is Protein?
Body cannot produce
9 in total
MUST be supplied by food
Body can synthesize for itself
Food often delivers
Just over half of amino acids are non-essential
Complete Protein:
Contains all essential amino acids
High quality
Meat, fish, eggs, yogurt, milk
Incomplete Protein:
Does NOT contain all essential amino acids in sufficient amounts
Considered 'low quality' protein
Eg. Grains, nuts, beans, seeds
Soy – although this is debatable
Putting it all Together...
Fat vs. Lean Muscle
Low Fat
Low Carb – Atkins
Blood Type Diet
Cookie Diet
Master Cleanse
Liquid Diet
Jenny Craig
Weight Watchers
Different Types of Diets
Caveman Diet
Cabbage Soup Diet
Dukan Diet
Zone Diet
South Beach Diet
Eat often
5-6 meals spaced out every 2.5 – 3 hours
Keeps metabolism revved and ready to go!
Eat real, unprocessed foods
Eat a variety of foods
Do NOT go hungry
Eat breakfast!
Eat protein at every meal
10g minimum!
Start off Basic
Eat every 2-4 hours.
Eat complete, lean protein with each feeding opportunity.
Eat vegetables with each feeding opportunity.
Eat healthy fats daily.
Don't drink your calories!
Eat whole foods whenever possible.
Get quality sleep
Drink plenty of water
Keeping it Simple
Most people underestimate how many calories they consume on a daily basis by 40%
They forget to add in drinks consumed, condiments, and underestimate their portion sizes
Measuring is the only way to be sure
The difference between a tablespoon of olive oil and a teaspoon is
80 calories
Things like nuts, oils, cheese are usually more calorie dense so portion control is important
Portion Distortion
If you're trying to figure out where you're going wrong in your current eating start keeping a food log
Make it something you can throw in your purse and write down every single thing that enters your mouth the moment you consume it
Do this for 1-2 weeks and pin-point where you feel you're going wrong
Be honest with this, if not it is only you who will suffer
First Things First
Let's Make a Plan
What is Good Nutrition?
Improve Health
Improve Performance
Improve Body Composition
Healthy Fat

Healthy Fat

Healthy Fat
Serving of fruit/vegetables

Serving of fruit/vegetables

Healthy Fat
Basic Sample Meal Plan for Fat Loss


Greek Yogurt
Omelet with Lean Meat & Veggies
Ezekiel Bread
Sliced Tomatoes

Low-fat Cottage Cheese
Sliced Peaches

Chicken Breast
Avocado slices
Basic Sample Meal Plan
Positive mental attitude
You are not punishing yourself by eating this way, you are treating your body the way it was meant to be
No one regrets eating healthy, people regret when they don't
Measuring tools
Scale, measuring cups, etc
Proper tupperware & ziploc baggies
Having your plan out in a place where you can easily see it
Have the Right Tools
Prepare your meals/snacks in advance so there is no thinking or guess work involved in your meal planning for the day
Take time to chop veggies and cook up chicken and things like that on the weekend to save you time during the week
Keep healthy snacks ready and available so that if something comes up you have options
Be Prepared
You should be consuming some form of protein & carbs after working out
You want to give yourself fuel to get through the workout and then refuel your body after as well
Should consume post workout meal/shake within 60 minutes of exercise since this is when the body will absorb those nutrients the fastest and use them most effectively
Pre/Post Workout
Oatmeal w/ protein powder
Sweet potato & lean protein
Chicken brown rice and broccoli casserole
Hard boiled eggs and toast
Wrap w/ turkey & veggies
Pita with hummus
Rice cakes with nut butter, banana & protein shake
Greek Yogurt Parfait
Apple w/ peanut butter
Tuna on Ezekiel bread
Some Examples...
Make sure you're not unknowingly indulging in calories without realizing it
Be aware of sauces and condiments as most have high sugar/fat content
Don't drink your calories! Stay away from those damn Tim Horton's mocha frappy thingys
Don't let other people drag you down! Most of the time they feel bad about their own choices and therefore will make you feel bad about yours
Don't Self Sabotage!
Stay hydrated
Get lots of sleep
Reduce stress
Try and stick to foods that aren't breaded, deep fried or made from simple carbs
Choose words like:
Grilled, broiled, baked, poached
Avoid calorie dense sauces and condiments
Don't be afraid to ask for substitutions
Eating Out
Eat REAL Food!
Eat real, whole, unprocessed food whenever possible

Those 100 calorie packs might only be 100 calories, but are they a filling, nutritious 100 calories?
Fat Free
Reduced Fat
Low Fat
Sugar Free
No Added Sugar
Watch out for this wording...
Fat free, but full of sugar and chemicals.
Reduced fat, but increased carbohydrates.
Low fat, but high glycemic index.
Sugar free, but artificial everything else.
No added sugar… because the all natural version has enough sugar already
But mainly made up of white flour
It's OK to splurge once in a while!
You will more than likely fall off the wagon
Do NOT spend time wishing you could un-do the past but rather focus on what you can do better next time
Do not let one bad meal turn into a bad day
Worse still do not let a bad meal turn into “I'm really going to start next week”
Keep yourself accountable, you must be responsible for your own decisions
You are Going to Screw Up
Give yourself 2 – 4 weeks on any new plans before you start making any changes or adjustments
Your body takes time to adapt to new things
Make sure that as you progress your meal plan does also
Remember that different things work for different people
YOU are the one on the plan so it needs to work for YOU
Use calipers/tape measurements & pictures to track physical changes
Evaluate & Adjust
So it Sounds Healthy....
Just because something is organic or in the 'healthy' section, doesn't mean it's good for you
Agave for example is 70% – 92% pure fructose — even higher than high fructose corn syrup (which is 55%)
Foods that people think are healthy....
Reduced fat nut butter
'Energy' bars
Most purchased smoothies
Spinach wraps & pasta
Trail Mix
Canned Soup
Veggie chips
Brown Sugar
Sea Salt
Foods you SHOULD include in your Diet...
Steel cut oats
Chia seeds
Flax Seeds (ground)
Greek Yogurt
Green Tea
Olive Oil
Coconut Oil
Wheat Berries
Sweet potatoes
Brown Rice
SO....what's the deal with gluten?
Gluten is the protein found in wheat, rye, and barley, but it’s also found in foods like ice cream and ketchup.

Gluten-free diets are typically followed by people suffering from a gluten sensitivity or celiac disease, a condition that causes a negative reaction to gluten and results in damage to the intestines. This damage makes it difficult for the body to absorb necessary nutrients and leads to vitamin and mineral deficiencies.

In recent years, gluten-free diets have become part of the weight loss fad. However, a gluten-free diet isn’t necessarily healthier and often leads to weight gain. Many gluten-free products are high in processed carbs and sugar and low in fiber.


Late Night Eating?


Homemade is best
Grassfed/organic - is better when possible but don't stress about it
Protein Powder - whey, casein, pea, egg white
Egg whites, cottage cheese, greek yogurt are all good ways to get added protein
Nutritional Yeast - 5 g protein, 100% B-12, 500% Thiamin
Fish Oil
Vitamin D3
High in Omega's and fiber
Decent protein
High fiber and omega's

Add either to oatmeal, salads, make chia pudding
Tips & Tricks
Ideally veggies should make up around half of your main meals
Salads, veggie soup, veggie casseroles
Cauliflower mash, zucchini 'pasta', roasted veggies
When looking for something sweet to have after dinner make good choices
Banana 'froyo', frozen fruit sorbet, protein powder crepes, baked apples, healthy fruit crisps
Natural Ways to Sweeten Foods
*Coconut Palm Sugar - Less fructose than regular cane sugar
Most people don't need to follow a strict plan, simply eating unprocessed foods is enough
Is it.....?
How Much to Eat?
A basic way to calculate the calories you need is to:
Take your bodyweight and multiply it by 14
That will be your appx. maintenance level

To lost weight:
Multiply your
bodyweight by 12

The website IIFYM (if it fits your macros) has an easy to use online calculator to help figure this out

You really only need to know how to manipulate macros if you are prepping for something or want to get super shredded
Don't Do Too Much
Most people know what they’re doing wrong in the nutrition department, yet they don’t change their habits

Too much sugar/processed food, alcohol and eating absent-mindedly is not going to do you any favors

You didn’t put on the weight over night, don’t expect it to come off in a couple weeks

Your body composition is the direct result of multiple decisions made over a period of time - you need to make far more good decisions then bad ones
Alcohol & Weight Loss
Slows your metabolism
More likely to make bad food decisions
Worse for women than men (of course)
What Happens When You Drink
Alcohol lowers your testosterone levels for anywhere between 18 – 72 hours after you drink
A small portion of the alcohol is converted into fat
Your liver then converts most of the alcohol into acetate
The acetate is then released into your bloodstream, and replaces fat as a source of fuel
All alcohol has 7 calories per gram
The higher the percentage, the more calories it contain
Drinks like rum contain a higher carb content than dry wines
Drinking usually leads to poor food decisions so you eat more and your body burns fat at a slower rate, not a winning combo
Full transcript