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Transcript of Native Americans
I. Pre-Colonial to the Civil War
II. Civil War to WWII
III. WWII until Today
Two theories about the beginning:
A. Ice Bridge
B. Island - Hopping
Tribe - a group that shares
a similar culture, usually
Culture - things that
belong to a society.
Physical (tools and treasures)
Mental - beliefs, values, ideas
Society - more than one person.
Nation - a collection
of similar cultures.
How does geography affect a tribe's culture?
Similarities between American Indian Nations:
2. Land/Resources are Shared
2. Land/Resources are Owned
Columbian Exchange -
French and Indian War
The Indians had more in common with the French than with the British:
1. Fur Traders
2. Catholic Priests
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Trail of Tears
Pushing Indians West
"We have been taught to
hunt and live on the game. You tell us that we must learn to farm, live in one house, and take on your ways. Suppose the people living beyond the great sea should come and tell you to stop farming, and kill your cattle, and take your houses and lands, what would you do? Would you not fight them?
- Sioux Warrior, 1866
- military leader of the
- won the
Battle of Little Bighorn
of Great Plains
- gathers an
alliance of tribes
the United States Army
Battle of Little Bighorn
- Reports of gold in the
- 700 U.S. Calvarymen
vs. "1500"Plains Indians
- 7th Calvary fell to the
Effects of Little Bighorn:
1. Army gets bigger.
2. Army forces Indians onto reservations.
3. U.S. citizens forge a common enemy.
Assimilation - the practice
of changing one culture into
Dawes Act - "Americanize"
the Native Americans
1. Off-reservation boarding schools
2. White teachers.
3. "Kill the Indian and save the man."
"Battle" of Wounded Knee
- 7th calvary rounds up 350 Sioux
- one man protests and fires his rifle
- 300 unarmed American Indians are slaughtered
1800 - 15 million buffalo
1890 - 600
1900 - 23
1924 Indian Citizenship Act
- 125,000 out of 300,000 Native Americans gain full citizenship
1934 Indian Reorganization Act
- stops government from taking land
- restores some tribal lands to orignal groups
65,000 join military
(Geograpy and Culture in War)
(1953) Termination Policy:
- government takes away reservations
- no more federal funding
- unable to find jobs --- racism and poverty
- American Indians become more self-deterministic.
- More than 1 billion dollars is awarded for stolen land
Reaganomics in thirty seconds:
1. cut taxes
2. stop government spending
3. wealth "trickles down"
Effect on Native Americans:
1. Slashed aid to healthcare and education of American Indian reservations.
2. Created a demand for casinos on reservations.
Problems of Today:
1. Violent Crimes (20x)
6. Many More ...
“The country’s 2.1 million Indians, about 400,000 of whom live on reservations, have the highest rates of poverty, unemployment, and disease of any ethnic group in America” - Peter Carlson