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Transcript of Cognitive development
Educational and Vocational issues
· Most students finish school
Lawrece Kohlberg and hypothetical dilemma:
Orientation towards punishment and obedience
Instrumental purpose and exchange
PReparing for higher
- Influences on students' aspirations
Changes in information processing
Cognitive development in adolescence
Levels and Stages
Maintaining mutual relation, approval of others
Social concern and conscience
Morality of contract, of individual rights and
democratically accepted law
Morality of universal ethnical principles
There's who remains in Level I or in Level II
The 75 boys went throught all the stages in sequence
Kohlberg didn't take into account these factors that can contribute the emothional and cognitive realms:
the cultural values
People with a high cognitive development do not always have a high moral development
How can we know Kohlber's theory is universal if they were all boys?
This research has found that there's a small difference between men and women:
women see morality more in terms of responsibility to show care and avoid harm focusing on not turning away from others, and men see it more in terms of justice
Patricia Victoria Balcerzak
do less well on test
Influences on school
· Student motivation and
· Socioeconomic Status.
· Parenting Styles and
· The school.
· Students aren't self-motivated
· In many cultures
is based on
Submission to authority
Participation in family (sub-Saharan Africa)
meet social expectations (east Asia)
· Inadequate schools
· labor to support family
· Schooling for girls
· Early marriage.
high occupational status
· Reading and
· Like school
· Better grades
· Visual and spatial
· Math and science
· + variable scores
· more likely to be
· more likely to be drop out of school
What causes this gender differences?
G: + gray matter
+ corpus callosum
+ cognitive abilities
B: + white matter
visual and spatial
Social and cultural
· Women's and men's role
Parenting Styles and
· Welcome participation
· Child know + than parents
· Positive attitudes toward work.
Privilege: Good marks
Poor grades: try again
· Child will know better when they grown up.
Good grades: could be better
Poor grades: punishment
· Indifferent to grades
· Teenagers responsible for
· + likely to attribute
pay - attention
spend -time in
Lack of peer support --> - grades
· Quality of schooling
· Material resources
· Positive sense of
Adolescents are + satisfied
allowed to participate
Higher teacher expectations
· Capable of abstract reasoning
· Sophisticated moral judgements
· Plan realistically for the future
PIAget's stage of formal operations
Piaget's final stage of development, characterized by the ability to think abstractly
The pendulum problem
Stage of concrete operations
Stage of formal operations
Expanding environmental opportunities
· Declarative knowledge
· Procedural knowledge
· Conceptual knowledge
· Define and discuss abstractions
· Words as symbols with multiple meanings
· Social perspective-taking
· Vocabulary variability
Dropping out of
Most likely to drop out:
-Low income students
· Low teacher expectations
· Less teacher support
· Lower incomes
· Drug addicts/ Criminals
- work + 20 hrs/week
- little time for leisure and school
· Drug abuse
- school work
- paid jobs
SENSE OF RESPONSIBILITY
· Educational system focuses on memorising
-Guiding students NOT bound for college
-Adolescents in the Workplace
KoHlberg and gillian
What were the 2 added stages?
Where can you stay forever?
Which was the problem on Kohlberg's theory for Gillian?
What's the Gillian's theory conclusion?
Influences on School Achievement
1. What are the main factors that influence adolescents on school achievement?
2. What causes gender differences?
3. Which are the three parenting styles?
PIAGET, INFORMATION PROCESSING AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
According to Piaget, which is the final step of cognitive development? And which is the main characteristic of this step?
Which are the two broad categories of measurable change in adolescent cognition?
Which is the name of the "social dialect of puberty" ?
Dropping out of highschool and preparing for higher education
Statistically seen, which students are the most likely to drop out of highschool?
What 2 things have an influence on student's aspirations?
Which students are thought to gain a sense of responsibility from having a paid job, the "accelerators" or the "balancers"?
· Processing speed
· Development of executive function