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Cognitive development

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Ana Llorca Benet

on 23 December 2014

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Transcript of Cognitive development

COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
Educational and Vocational issues
· Most students finish school
Kohlberg's theory.
Lawrece Kohlberg and hypothetical dilemma:
Level 1:
Preconventional morality
Stage 1:
Orientation towards punishment and obedience
Stage 2:
Instrumental purpose and exchange

PReparing for higher
education
- Influences on students' aspirations

Changes in information processing

Structural change


Cognitive development in adolescence
Levels and Stages
*Transitional level
Level 2:
Conventional morality
Stage 3:
Maintaining mutual relation, approval of others
Stage 4:
Social concern and conscience


Level 3:
Postconventional morality
Stage 5:
Morality of contract, of individual rights and
democratically accepted law
Stage 6:
Morality of universal ethnical principles
*Stage 7:
Cosmic stage

Results
There's who remains in Level I or in Level II
The 75 boys went throught all the stages in sequence
Problems
Kohlberg didn't take into account these factors that can contribute the emothional and cognitive realms:
the cultural values
the peers
the parents
People with a high cognitive development do not always have a high moral development
Gillian's theory
How can we know Kohlber's theory is universal if they were all boys?
This research has found that there's a small difference between men and women:
women see morality more in terms of responsibility to show care and avoid harm focusing on not turning away from others, and men see it more in terms of justice
Katrin Galvez
Patricia Victoria Balcerzak
Ana Llorca
Cristina Expósito

do less well on test
Influences on school
achievement
· Student motivation and
Self-Efficacy.

· Socioeconomic Status.
· Gender.

· Parenting Styles and
peer influence.

· The school.
Student Motivation
and Self-Efficacy
· Students aren't self-motivated
· In many cultures
education
is based on
Duty (India)
Submission to authority
(Islamic countries)
Participation in family (sub-Saharan Africa)
meet social expectations (east Asia)
Developing countries
social and
economical barriers
· Inadequate schools
· labor to support family
· Schooling for girls
· Early marriage.

· Students
postsecondary-educated
parent
high occupational status
parent
performe BETTER
+200 books
Girls
Boys
· Reading and
writing

· Confidence

· Like school

· Better grades
· Visual and spatial
functions

· Math and science

· + variable scores

· more likely to be
underachievers

· more likely to be drop out of school
What causes this gender differences?
G: + gray matter
+ corpus callosum
+ cognitive abilities
B: + white matter
visual and spatial
performance
+ specialized
Social and cultural
influences
· Home
· School
· Neighborhood
· Women's and men's role
· Cultural
Parenting Styles and
peer influence.
Authoritative parents
· Welcome participation
· Child know + than parents
· Positive attitudes toward work.
·Self efficacy
Privilege: Good marks
Poor grades: try again
Authoritarian parents
· Child will know better when they grown up.
Good grades: could be better
Poor grades: punishment
Permissive parents
· Indifferent to grades
· Teenagers responsible for
their lives
· + likely to attribute
poor grades
pay - attention
spend -time in
homework
Lack of peer support --> - grades
The School
Influences in
school achievement
· Quality of schooling
· Material resources
· Positive sense of
community

Adolescents are + satisfied
allowed to participate
Higher teacher expectations
students' goals
predictor
Motivation
familiarity of
elementary school
+ pressured
middle-school
SES
· Capable of abstract reasoning

· Sophisticated moral judgements

· Plan realistically for the future
PIAget's stage of formal operations
Piaget's final stage of development, characterized by the ability to think abstractly
Hyphothetical-deductive reasoning
The pendulum problem
6 years
Preoperational stage
10 years
Stage of concrete operations

15 years
Stage of formal operations
Hypothetical-deductive reasoning
Brain maturation
Expanding environmental opportunities
· Declarative knowledge
· Procedural knowledge
· Conceptual knowledge
Language development
· Define and discuss abstractions

· Words as symbols with multiple meanings

· Social perspective-taking

·
Publilect

· Vocabulary variability
Dropping out of
highschool

Most likely to drop out:
- Blacks
- Hispanics
-Low income students
Reasons
· Low teacher expectations
· Less teacher support
· Lower incomes
· Unemployed
· Drug addicts/ Criminals

Active engagement
· Gender
· "Accelerators"

- work + 20 hrs/week

- little time for leisure and school
· Delinquency
· Drug abuse
· "Balancers"
Balance:
- school work
- leisure
- paid jobs
SENSE OF RESPONSIBILITY

· Educational system focuses on memorising
-Guiding students NOT bound for college
-Adolescents in the Workplace
Questions
KoHlberg and gillian
1.
What were the 2 added stages?

2.
Where can you stay forever?

3.
Which was the problem on Kohlberg's theory for Gillian?

4.
What's the Gillian's theory conclusion?
Influences on School Achievement
1. What are the main factors that influence adolescents on school achievement?


2. What causes gender differences?


3. Which are the three parenting styles?
PIAGET, INFORMATION PROCESSING AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
1)
According to Piaget, which is the final step of cognitive development? And which is the main characteristic of this step?


2)
Which are the two broad categories of measurable change in adolescent cognition?


3)
Which is the name of the "social dialect of puberty" ?
Dropping out of highschool and preparing for higher education
1)
Statistically seen, which students are the most likely to drop out of highschool?

2)
What 2 things have an influence on student's aspirations?

3)
Which students are thought to gain a sense of responsibility from having a paid job, the "accelerators" or the "balancers"?

Functional changes
· Processing speed

· Development of executive function
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