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Italian Language

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fadime ural

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Transcript of Italian Language

Fadime Ural

Italian Language
ITALY
Official name :
Italian Republic
,
Repubblica Italiana
Capital :
Rome

Population :
60.234.000
Principal language :
Italian
Literary Rate :
99 %
Immigrant Languages:
Chinese
(40,000)
,
English
(29,000)
,
Maltese
(28,000)
,
Somali
(50,600)
,
Spanish
(91,900)
Language Counts:
The number of individual languages listed for Italy is
35
. All are living languages. Of these,
5
are institutional,
10
are developing,
5
are vigorous,
10
are in trouble, and
5
are dying.
Italian is a
Romance language
spoken by about
60 million people
primarily in Italy.
The Italian language is a member of the
Italo-Dalmatian
group of languages, which is part of the
Italo-Western
grouping of the
Romance languages
, which are a subgroup of the Italic branch of
Indo-European
.
LANGUAGE PROIFLE AND CLASSIFICATION


Italian is more lexically similar to Latin than any other Romance language because Latin was the language of the Roman Empire, the heart of which was found in present-day Italy.

It has lots of dialects

Standard Italian is based on
Tuscan

dialects

Over the last few decades, Tuscan standard has been slightly influenced by the variety of Italian spoken
in Milan
, the economic center of Italy

Possibly nearly half the populations do not use standard Italian as L1

Only 3% of Italy’s population could speak standard Italian when the nation unified in 1861

16,670,000 also use English, 8,050,000 also use French.







WHERE IS ITALIAN IS SPOKEN ?


Italy,
Switzerland
San Marino,
the Vatican City,
Slovenia
Croatia
It is widely used by immigrant groups in

Luxembourg Canada
Germany Venezuela
Belgium Brazil
the United States Argentina
France Romania
UK Australia
Chile Albania
It is spoken, to a much lesser extent, in parts of
Africa

formerly under Italian rule such as
Somalia
,
Libya
and
Eritrea.
OFFICIAL STATUS
Italian is an

official language

of

Italy
,
the European Union, San Marino, Vatican City,
and
Ticino and Grigioni cantons of Switzerland
It is also an official language in some areas of

Istria
in
Slovenia
and
Croatia

with an Italian minority
It is taught in
Monaco
and in the neighboring island of
Malta
and served as an official language of the country until English was enshrined in the 1934 Constitution.


HISTORY
During the long period of the evolution of Italian, many dialects sprang up

The multiplicity of these dialects make it harder to form only one accepted dialect which will reflect the unity of peninsula.

Even the earliest popular Italian documents which are produced in the 10th century are dialectal in language

Italian writers wrote in their native dialects, and this caused to produce a number of competing regional schools of literature.

During the 14th century, the Tuscan dialect began to predominate, because of the central position of Tuscany in Italy, and because of the immense growth of the city of Florence

The Tuscan dialect is also the one that most strongly resembles Latin

The Tuscan dialect is generally used by Italian politicians, philosophers and writers of the time so this made it popular





With the
formal unification of Italy in 1861
, the Tuscan dialect of the Italian tongue
became the

official language
of the Italian nation

ALPHABET
Italian uses Latin alphabet. It has
21
letters. The letters
j, k, w, x
and
y
are generally only found in loanwords.There are
5
vowels which are
a, e, i, o, u
.
http://www.omniglot.com/soundfiles/italian/alphabet_italian.mp3
PERSONAL PRONOUNS
There are three forms in the singular and three forms in the plural. Personal pronouns are inflected by
person, number,
and
gender.

SINGULAR

PLURAL

Iio (I)



noi (we)

tu (you, informal)

voi (you)

lui, lei (he, she)

loro (they)

Lui (you, formal)

Loro (you, formal)

NOUNS
In Italian, nouns are
inflected in number
and
in gender.

The endings of nouns change depending on the gender and number.

So, the ending of an Italian noun reveals its gender (masculine or feminine) and number (singular or plural).





The
masculine nouns
generally
end with the vowel “o”

The feminine

nouns
generally
end with the vowel “a”


Also,
both
masculine nouns
and
feminine nouns
may end with the
vowel “e”
.

In this situation, articles which are
“il”
,
"lo"
and
“la”
can help us determine the words’ gender.


ARTICLES
In Italian, nouns have gender so there is always an article before the words which describes whether the word is feminine or masculine.

There are four articles which are
"il", "lo", "la",
and
"l'"

-Definite Article with Feminine
If the word’s gender is feminine, we use
“la”
or
“l”
"La"
is used with words which begin with
a consonant

i.e.
la casa

“l”
is used with words which begin with
a vowel

i.e.
l'amica

If it is plural, Also noun ending changes,
la le a e




l' le e i
FOR EXAMPLE :
- Definite articles with Masculine
If the word’s gender is masculine, we use
“il”
,
“lo”
, and
“l”
.

“Lo”
is only used with words which begin with consonants
“ps, z, zn, gn and s+consonant”
.

Also,
“l”
is used with words which begins with
vowels
.

While making pluralization, the words which end with
“o”
and
“e”
turns into
“i”
.

Also, the articles which are
l'
,
lo
, and
il
turns into
gli
,
gli
,
i
.


For example :
Indefinite Articles with Feminine

The definite article "la" becomes
“una”
and "l''" becomes
“un'”
.
“una”
is

used with feminine words beginning with consonants.
For example
:
una
montagna: a mountain

una
lezione : a lesson

una
cosa : a thing
“un’ ”
is used with feminine words beginning with vowels.
For example:

un'
amica : a friend (female)

un'
automobile : an automobile

un'
arte : an art



Indefinite articles with Masculine
indefinite articles for masculine are
“un”
and
“uno”
.

“un”
is used with masculine words beginning with both consonant and vowel.

For Example
:
un
giardino: a garden

un
amico : a friend

“uno”
is used with masculine words beginning with s+ consonant, y, gn, ps, x, and z.

For Example:

uno
scolaro: a student (male)

uno
yacht : a yacht

uno
gnomo : a gnome

uno
psicologo : a psychologist

uno
zaino : a backpack



ADJECTIVES

In Italian, adjectives may be before or after the noun. They must correspond to the gender and numbers of nouns. In other words, adjectives are inflected according to the numbers and genders of nouns.
Singular

train : il treno road : la via
red : rosso red : rossa
red train: il treno rosso red road : la via rossa

Plural
trains : i treni roads : le vie
red : rossi red : rosse
red trains : i treni rossi red roads : le vie rosse
ADVERBS
most typical form of Italian adverbs is that derived from an adjective, with the addition of the
suffix –mente
. This is similar to the English pattern of adverbs formed with the suffix –ly.

Tranquillo tranquilla
mente


quiet



quietly




attento attenta
mente

careful



carefully



serio seria
mente

serious



seriously


AFFIXES : PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES

In Italian, there are both
prefixes
and
suffixes
, but more significantly ending refer to number, gender, nouns, adjectives or even pronouns and also mood, tense, person/gender and number aspects of the verbs.
QUESTION
In Italian, question words are used.

If there is no need to use question words, the meaning and stress may be achieved by interchanging the positions of verbs and subjects.

For example:
lo parlo Ben konuşuyorum
lo parlo ? Ben konuşuyor muyum ?

Some Common Question Words

chi:
who
quando:
when
che:
what
dove:
where
come:
how
perché:
why


Examples:

Come ti chiami?
: What is your name ?

Quanti anni hai?
: How old are you ?

Chi parla italiano?
: Who speaks Italian ?


NEGATION
In Italian, it is very easy to make a sentence negative.

To make a sentence negative, the negator
“non”
comes before the verb and after the subject.

For example :


io
non
parlo :
I do not speak
tu
non
parli :
You do not speak
noi
non
parliamo:
we do not speak

WORD ORDER
Italian is an
SVO
language. The subject is usually omitted when it is a pronoun – distinctive verb conjugations make it redundant. Subject pronouns are considered emphatic when used at all. In other words, verbs has
endings
so the word order does not matter so much, as long as correct ending is used.

For example:

Ascolto musica müzik dinlerim


Verb


object
Io ascolto musica ben müzik dinlerim

Subj. Verb object


PARAMETER


Italian is a
pro-drop language
and verb is in the
head initial position
. We can omit the subject because each verb is inflected according to subject, and tense. Subject is embedded within the verb itself.

SOME BASIC VOCABULARY ITEMS
NUMBERS
1 uno 6 sei
2 due 7 sette
3 tre 8 otto
4 quattro 9 nove
5 cinque 10 dieci


C
O
L
O
R
S
DAYS OF THE WEEK
MONTHS
FAMILY MEMBERS
GREETINGS
A SAMPLE PARAGRAPH
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Tutti gli esseri umani nascono liberi ed eguali in dignità e diritti. Essi sono dotati di ragione e di coscienza e devono agire gli uni verso gli altri in spirito di fratellanza

http://www.omniglot.com/soundfiles/udhr/udhr_it.mp3
CULTURE & SOCIETY OF ITALIAN

Italian Family Values

• The family is the centre of the social structure.
• In the north, generally only the nuclear family lives together; while in the south, the extended family often resides together in one house.


Etiquette & Customs in Italy
Gift Giving Etiquette
Do not give chrysanthemums as they are used at funerals.
• Do not give red flowers as they indicate secrecy.
• Do not give yellow flowers as they indicate jealousy
• Do not wrap gifts in black, as is traditionally a mourning color.
• Do not wrap gifts in purple, as it is a symbol of bad luck.

Table Manners

Remain standing until invited to sit down. You may be shown to a particular seat

Follow the lead of the hostess - she sits at the table first, starts eating first, and is the first to get up at the end of the meal.

Do not keep your hands in your lap during the meal; however, do not rest your elbows on the table either.


VERBS
General features of the verbs ;
Conjugations
Subject
Tense
Mood

Subject
refers to the person (first, second- third, singular and plural)

Conjugations

Conjugation is the act of changing a verb to suit the way its being used.

Italian verbs have a pattern of six distinct verb endings which changea according to subject.Also these six endings change for tenses, as well. Fortunately, most verbs follow common patterns of change known as conjugations.

Each verb has an invariable part (the stem), which carries its meaning, and an inflected part ( the ending), which identifies the person, the tense and the mood.


Italian verbs are classified into three conjugations:
ere
,
ire
,
are

To conjugate regular verbs drop the ending from the infinitive and add the appropriate endings to the stem and this endings changes according to each person.



First conjugation:

the verbs with infinitives ending in
–are
.

Example:

parl
are
>> to speak

io
parl
o
I speak
tu
parl
i
you speak
lei/lui
parl
a
she/he speaks
noi
parl
iamo
we speak
voi
parl
ate
you speak
Loro
parl
ano
they speak
Second conjugation:
the verbs with infinitives ending
–ere

Example :
io
cred
o
I believe
tu
cred
i
you believe
lui/lei
cred
e
he/she believes
noi
cred
iamo
we believe
voi
cred
ete
you believe
loro
cred
ono
they believe
Third conjugation:
the verbs with infinitives ending
–ire

1st group endings :

o, i, e, iamo, ite, ono
Second group endings:

isc
+o,
isc
+i,
isc
+e,iamo,ite,
isc
+ono
Example :
Dormire to sleep
io
dorm
o
I sleep
tu
dorm
i
you sleep
lui/lei
dorm
e
he/she sleep
noi
dorm
iamo
we sleep
voi
dorm
ite
you sleep
loro
dormono they sleep

Example :
Capire to understand
io
cap
isco
I understand
tu
cap
isci
you understand
lui/lei
cap
isce
he/she understand
noi
cap
iamo
we understand
voi
cap
ite
you understand
loro
cap
iscono
they understand



MOODS

The different forms and uses of Italian verbs are grouped
in seven moods
.

These convey the different characteristics of the actions or facts that the speaker or writer wants to communicate such as certanitiy or doubt, politeness or staigtforwardness, command or etc.

These are
indicative, conditional, subjunctive,imperative, infinitive, gerund, participle



The word tense denotes the different verb forms that indicated the relationship between the action or event referred to and the time of speaking or writing.

There is a range of different tenses for each mood of verbs.(except the imperative).

In Italian, different tenses used to distinguish features of verbs other than time relationships.

For example, perfect and imperfect tenses can express the aspect of the action, while different subjunctive and conditional tenses can express different degrees of doubt, possibility, politeness, etc.
TENSE
Simple and compound tenses

Many tenses of Italian are formed using the past participle of the main verb along with either
avere
or
essere
auxiliary verb. These are called compound tenses.

All transitive verbs use avere as their auxiliary verbs. Verbs in the passive voice use essere.

OFFICIAL STATUS

Italian is an
official language
of Italy, the European Union, San Marino, Vatican City, and in some areas of Switzerland.

It is also an official language in some areas of
Istria in Slovenia
and
Croatia
with an Italian minority.
Also, it is also widely known that it is taught in
Monaco
and in the neighboring
island of Malta
and served as an official language of the country until English was enshrined in the 1934 Constitution.
PLURALIZATION

i.e. libr
o
libr
i
mel
a
mel
e
can
e
can
i
book books apple apples dog dogs
cred
ere
to believe
avere
means
to have
io ho
tu hai
lui/lei ha
noi abbiamo
voi avete
loro hanno
essere
means
to be
io sono
tu sei
lui/lei è
noi siamo
voi siete
loro sono
References
http://www.omniglot.com/writing/italian.htm
http://www.italianlanguageguide.com/grammar/articles/
http://italyancaderslerii.blogspot.com.tr/2013/05/italyancada-soru-cumleleri-ve-soru.html
http://www.livescience.com/44376-italian-culture.html
http://mylanguages.org/multimedia/italian_audio_colors.php
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_grammar#Tenses
http://www.rocketlanguages.com/italian/learn/italian-verb-conjugation/
http://www.slideshare.net/hunchxx/modern-italian-grammar-a-practical-gui?related=1
http://www.effectivelanguagelearning.com/free-language-lessons/italian/grammar/verbs
http://www.lifeinitaly.com/italian/mood-tense
http://italian.about.com/od/verbs/a/aa081005a.htm
http://www.unilang.org/course.php?res=71#ci--l4
https://www.ethnologue.com
http://italyancaderslerii.blogspot.com.tr/2013/05/abitare-fiil-cekimleri.html
Mazzoni, C. (1943). Italian Made Simple, United States: Broadway Books.
http://www.italiamia.com/music.php
http://www.yourguidetoitaly.com/most-notable-and-famous-italians-in-history.html
http://historylists.org/people/top-10-most-famous-classical-music-composers.html

ROME

Rome is the capital of modern Italy. It has many ancient monuments, interesting medieval churches, beautiful fountains, museums.
Milan, one of Europe's richest cities, is known for stylish shops, galleries, and restaurants and has a faster pace of life than most Italian cities.
MILANO
It is held annually.
Every year, it lasts 40 days.
They are famous for their masks.
It was emerged during renaissance period.

CARNIVAL OF VENICE
It is the freestanding bell tower, of the cathedral of the Italian city of Pisa, known worldwide for its unintended tilt to one side.
PISA TOWER
PREPOSITIONS
In Italian, there are 3 kinds of prepositions :
1.) Simple Prepositions
di (d’)
a
da
in
con
su
per
tra, fra
at, to, in
from, by
in
with
on
for
between
of, from
Vive
a
Roma. (She lives
in
Rome.)

Abita
in
California. (He lives
in
California.)

I libri sono
su
un banco. (The books are
on
a desk.)
Examples:
2.) Articulated Prepositions
Any time the following prepositions are followed by a definite article, they become articulated. See the chart below:

Example:

di
+
il
=
del
We use this in the same cases as the prepositon
"di"
when the noun which follows is masculine singular and starts with a consonant.

Eg. L' onda
del
mare. / The wave
of

the
sea.

di
+
la
=
della
We use this in the same cases as the prepositon
"di"
when the noun which follows is feminine singular and starts with a consonant.
Es: Lo sportello
della
macchina. / The door
of
the
car.
3.) Improper prepositions:
They are those adverbs followed by a simple or articulated preposition.

Example:
ANIMALS
Florentine culture produced the three literary artists who best
summarized Italian thought and feeling of the late Middle Ages
and early Renaissance.
Famous Writers and Famous Works :


Dante Alighieri
"The Divine Comedy"




Francesco Petrarca
"Canzoniere"




Boccacio
"Decameron"


MUSIC IN ITALY
Italian music takes different forms ranging from
opera
, to
folk music
over
popular music,
classical music

and
religious music
. Music and dance have always formed an important part of Italian culture and folklore.
Italian
classical music
blossomed during the 1700s Niccolo Piccinni and Giuseppe Domenico Scarlatti — produced countless masterpieces at that time
During the late 1500s, Italian
opera
originated in Florence. This musical form came of age in the 1700s
For its part, Italian
folk music
, which often boasts poetic lyrics, is exceptionally varied. In fact, each of Italy's major regions can claim its own brand of folk
Italy’s most famous composers include :

Renaissance composers
Palestrina
and
Monteveredi
,

the Baroque composers
Alessandro Scarletti
,
Corelli and Vivaldi
the classical composers
Paganini
and
Rossini
,
the Romantic composers
Verdi
and
Puccini
Modern Italian composers such as
Berio
and
Nono
Full transcript