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Respiratory Centers and Effects on Normal and Quiet Breathing

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Eon Visagie

on 31 July 2014

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Transcript of Respiratory Centers and Effects on Normal and Quiet Breathing

Internal respiration
-Absorption of O2 and release of CO2 by cells after E.R.


-Biochemical processes known as Cellular Respiration.

External respiration
- Exchange of O2 and CO2 between body’s interstitial fluids and external environment.

-Function – Meet the respiratory needs of the cells.


External respiration
Pulmonary ventilation (Breathing)
Physical movement of air in and out the lungs.

Gas Diffusion
Respiratory membrane between alveolar air spaces and alveolar capillaries.

Transport
O2 and CO2 between alveolar capillaries and capillary beds of other tissues.

What is Respiration??
Respiratory Centers and Effects on Normal and Quiet Breathing
Two main aspects

Internal respiration
External respiration
The Respiratory Cycle

Mechanics of Breathing

Modes of breathing
Quiet Breathing:

Inhalation – Muscular contractions of diaphragm and external intercostal muscles.

Diaphragmatic breathing – Necessary change in thoracic volume = Air into lungs.

Costal (Shallow) breathing – Rib cage alters shape, changes thoracic volume = Inhalation due to contraction of EIM.

Exhalation passive when diaphragm and external intercostal muscles relax.

Forced breathing:

Active inspiratory and expiratory movements.

Accessory muscles assist inhalation.

Exhalation – contraction of internal intercostal muscles.

Maximum levels – Abdominal muscles involved.

Abdominal pressure increases, more pressure on diaphragm = Reduces volume of thoracic cavity further.

The respiratory centre in the Medulla Oblongata And pons

A ventral respiratory group (VRG)
Location: ventrolateral part of the medulla
mainly cause expiration.
Only function during forced breathing.
Neurons innervate accessory muscles for forceful inspiration and active exhalation.
A ventral respiratory group (VRG)
Location: ventrolateral part of the medulla
mainly cause expiration.
Only function during forced breathing.
Neurons innervate accessory muscles for forceful inspiration and active exhalation.
A ventral respiratory group (VRG)
Location: ventrolateral part of the medulla
mainly cause expiration.
Only function during forced breathing.
Neurons innervate accessory muscles for forceful inspiration and active exhalation.
Apneustic centers
paired nuclei that adjust the output of the respiratory rhythmicity centers
Found in the lower pons.
During forced breathing, they also receive sensory input from the vagus nerves with regards to the amount of lung inflation.


The respiratory centre in the Medulla Oblongata And pons

The respiratory centre in the Medulla Oblongata And pons

The respiratory centre in the Medulla Oblongata And pons

Effects on quiet breathing
Activity in DRG increases over about 2 seconds - stimulation to inspiratory muscles = inhalation occurs.

After 2 seconds – DRG neurons become inactive.

Remain inactive for 3 seconds – inspiratory muscles relax = passive exhalation occurs.

Effects on forced breathing
During inhalation:
DRG and the inspiratory centre of the VRG are active and the expiratory centre of the VRG are inhibited.

Inspiratory muscles are then activated to contract and the expiratory muscles relax.
This causes forced inspiration.

During exhalation:
The DRG and inspiratory centre of VRG are inhibited and the expiratory centre of VRG are active.

This causes the relaxation of inspiratory muscles
Contraction of expiratory muscles.
Causing active or forced expiration to occur
CNS stimulants e.g. Coffee or amphetamines increase respiratory rates by facilitating respiratory centers.

CNS depressants oppose these actions e.g. opiates or barbiturates.

CNS depressants oppose these actions e.g. opiates or barbiturates
Apneustic and Pneumotaxic centers.

Paired nuclei.

Adjust output of respiratory centers.

Apneustic = Depth

Pneumotaxic = Rate

The Respiratory Center of the Pons

Apneustic and Pneumotaxic centers.

SIDS – Sudden infant death syndrome aka “Crib Death”
ANY QUESTIONS????????????
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