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Western Civ 4-Scientific Revolution
Transcript of Western Civ 4-Scientific Revolution
He makes conclusions about the natural depravity of man that lead him to argue that the only government that can manage the chaos of human nature is strong, absolute leadership. Not a great solution, but still better than the chaos of nature. Thomas Hobbes and the Leviathan New Discoveries lead to a revolution in the Modern World View
Humans can discover nature’s – God’s – secrets.
Cures for humanity’s problems now appear discoverable.
Man’s relationship with God changes in important ways.
Many conservative thinkers are appalled. Newtonian Thought Creates a Revolution Robert Boyle William Harvey Christian Huygens Rene Descartes Copernicus and Galileo use new methods to devise their worldview, not working deductively, not assuming first principles.
Instead, they use inductive reasoning, making no prior assumptions.
This is developed further by Sir Francis Bacon.
Then, all hell breaks loose… with scientific revolutions happening all over the place. The Scientific Method Europeans embraced the Ptolemaic model for three reasons
It matched their experience
It was handed down from the scientific writings of the ancients
It fit biblical revelation
Yet in fact, this model did not fit careful observation…
A new view of the universe emerged that sought to reconcile observation not with Scripture, but with observation and reason. The Ptolemaic Universe Essay Concerning Human Understanding and Two Treatises of Government, 1690.
He came to different conclusions about human nature… arguing that humans are born as tabula rasa capable of becoming both good and bad.
Ultimately, reason leads to “reasonable” behavior. The authority of government thus must come from the rational people who create it.
People maintain a “Civil Contract” with their leaders, a contract that leaders can break by failing to do their job. The leader can be deposed without breaking the fundamental social contract that keeps society running.
This idea contradicts the Great Chain of Being and is used to justify revolutions around the world. John Locke Newton’s three laws of motion:
Every body at rest or in movement remains so unless and until a force is applied to it.
The change in motion is proportional to the force exerted.
Ever action produces an opposite reaction
Implies that God’s universe runs according to natural laws that are unchanging, rational, mathematical, and discoverable. Sir Isaac Newton Anton van Leeuwenhoek Blaise Pascal Sir Francis Bacon Johannes Kepler None of these findings fit how people have understood their world or the rules that dictate all the hierarchies of society.
Church authorities step in to manage Galileo’s mess.
Galileo is silenced, but the printing press makes his ideas known across Europe. New Findings, Disturbing Findings Galileo Galilei Nicholas Copernicus The astronomical theory at the heart of how people understood the universe since the 2nd century– the theory of the Ptolemaic Universe.
In 1500, most people believed that the Earth was the unmoving center of the Universe. The Scientific Revolution and the importance of the past… The Rational and Scientific Revolutions – 1450-1650 Edmund Halley The adding machine Pascal's Theorum
The Theory of Probability Optics
The Study of curves
The Alphabetical System for unknown variables
Superscipts 1543 1614 "On the Revolutions of Heavenly Bodies"