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Intro Wagoner High School AP Psych

Ch 1 History of Psychology

Mary Cole

on 27 September 2011

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Transcript of Intro Wagoner High School AP Psych

H I S T O R Y Psychology is? "Pschology 8th Ed"
Myers "Thinking About Psychology"
Blair-Broeker & Ernst "5 Steps to a 5"
McGraw-Hill The scientific study of behavior
and mental processes Pychology relies on scientific
research methods - just like any
other science - in an attempt to
understand how and why we act and think in the ways we do Any outwardly observable thing that you do
from laughing to writing down notes is a behavior that psychologists can, and do study Mental processes include the things
that we cannot see - such as our
thoughts, feelings, fears, and dreams Psychology is the 2nd most popular
major in colleges and universities
More than 70,000 students will graduate
this year with a degree in Psychology Almost any job or career that
you can think of will benefit
from having a basic knowledge
of human psychology Psychology's Goals Goal #1 - DESCRIBE
What is the behavior and what is happening Example: Jack yells at his teacher and
slams his book to the floor when he is
asked to read outloud in class Goal #2 - EXPLAIN
Why is the behavior happening Jack stutters when he is under stress -
such as reading aloud - and he thinks
that everyone is laughing at him Goal #3 - PREDICT
When will the behavior happen again Whenever Jack is stressed -
he will loose his temper and strike out at those around him Goal #4 - CONTROL
How can the behavior be changed We can teach Jack ways to manage
his stress and also help him learn to
control his stuttering Psychology as a separate discipline did not
begin until the 19th Century

Psychology has it's roots in and attempts to
explain many of the same questions as
Philosophy does Wilhelm Wundt: 1832-1920 Was called the "Father" of Psychology
because he is acknowledged as the 1st
to conduct scientific experiments in the
field of psychology because he was interested in human
consciousness, Wundt conducted
experiments that tested how perceptions,
sensations, and feelings related to
human behavior Wundt developed the TOOL of INTROSPECTION
which was a process that tried to describe or break down
conscious experiences into their basic elements think of Introspection in this way:

describe the color, feel, texture,
smell, taste, of an object and the feelings
the object evokes In one study that Wundt conducted,
participants were told to press a button as
soon as they saw a light come on - Task 1; Task 2 - participants were told to press
the left-hand button when a green light
came on and the right-hand button when
a red light came on Task 1 only required the perception of a light
coming on; Task 2 required not only the
perception of the light but also a decision
about which color was shown, and another
decision about whether to press the left or
right button Because the time required for Task 2
was longer than Task 1 - Wundt believed
the time difference measured the speed
of mental processes Edward Titchnener: 1867-1927 Structuralism is the 1st School of Thought or Theory
in psychology - this theory states that the
structure of conscious experience could be
understood by analyzing the basic elements
of thoughts and sensations Structuralism tried to understand the structure
or "Building Blocks" of conscious experiences
by analyzing its intensity, clarity, and quality Structuralists included Wundt, Titchener, and Hall Is credited with developing the Theory
of Structuralism - he took the tool of
Introspection to Cornell University and
used it to try to break down conscious
experience into its individual, basic components Think of Structuralism this way -
picture a house in your mind - Now -
break the house down into its basic
components - nails, boards, drywall,
paint, concrete, etc. -
Now analyze each one separately Unlike Wundt - Titchener was not interested
in mental processes to explain consciousness
- but was interested in a descriptive science
that he could see and observe GESTALT theory This perspective emphasized that as humans, we tend
to take pieces or parts of something and try to make
it into a meaningful whole - in effect -
"The Whole is Greater than the Sum of its Parts" "th blk ct hd grn ys"
individually, these letters mean nothing -
but our mind strives to make sense out of
them and will "Fill-in" the missing letters
to create something meaningful to us Gestalt theory opposed Structuralism by suggesting
that adding the individual elements of an experience
together creates something new and different - that
trying to break a conscious experience down into its
indivual parts is meaningless FUNCTIONALISM This theory was developed by William James -
an American university professor at Harvard This theory states that psychology needs to
study the Functions of consciousness, or the
ways consciousness helps people adapt to their
environment James believed that consciousness serves a
function - that it enables us to consider our
past, adjust to our present circumstances,
and plan our future - he assumed that thinking
is adaptive and contributes to our survival Psychoanalysis This theory was developed by
Sigmund Freud and introduced
to the world in 1900 Sigmund Freud: 1856-1939 Psychoanlaysis is a theory of personality
and therapeutic technique that attributes
our thoughts and actions to UNCONSCIOUS
motives and conflicts Psychoanalysis focused on Abnormal behavior
and attributed it to Unconscious drives and
conflicts, usually stemming from childhood This theory relied on personal observation
and reflection instead of controlled laboratory
experimentation and scientific methods as a result, this theory has been greatly
criticized and dismissed as irrelevant However, many of the terms developed
by Freud, and many of his concepts have
persevered into modern culture For example, a "Freudian slip" is a
misstatement reflective of something
you'd like to say - a man waiting on a
woman at the Subway counter might
ask "And what kind of Breast would
you like with that" instead of "what
kind of bread" The term "anal" when talking about
someone's personality comes from
one of Freud's developmental stages
and refers to someone who is
excessively neat, clean, and
compulsive Even today, when you ask most people
their idea of visiting a psychologist, they will picture laying on a couch with the
psychologist taking notes -
which is a technique that was used by Freud and other psychoanalysts Remember - if the theory is about
Unconscious; early childhood conflicts;
Sex and Aggression - the theory is most
likely Psychoanalytic or Psychodynamic Ivan Pavlov: 1849-1936 John B. Watson: 1878-1958 B.F. Skinner: 1904-1990 If a behavior cannot be Observed -
it cannot be considered by psychologists Behaviorism believed that psychology
should only study observable behaviors,
not mental processes Watson's work made psychology
more objective and scientific in
its methods Behaviorism was the most dominant
school of thought in psychology in
the 20th century this method included precise experimental
observations of human reactions to
stimuli in their environment Pavlov and Watson used a method
called Classical Conditioning Skinner developed a method
called Operant Conditioning Skinner changed the focus of Behaviorism
to learning through rewards and
punishments Behaviorism Albert Bandura
followed up Skinner's
work and focused on
learning through Observation Until the 1960s, the two dominant
theories in psychology were
psychoanalysis and behaviorism Carl Rogers: 1902-1987 Humanism was a school of thought
developed by Carl Rogers in which
he emphasized Conscious Experience
and the belief that humans have free
will in their decision making and that
healthy people strive to reach their
full potential Humanism also believed that humans
could not be reduced to various parts
and pieces - that is - the whole person
is different from the sum of all the
parts (brain, neurons, emotions, etc.) Humanism did not deal with
Abnormal behavior - instead
it focused on helping healthy
people live better lives Most humanistic therapists work
in areas like marriage counseling,
adolescent counseling, etc. Humanism emphasized the importance of
current environmental influences on our
growth potential, and the importance of
meeting our needs for love and acceptance Humanism A school of thought that focuses
on the study of conscious experience,
a person's freedom to choose, and
the capacity for personal growth Jean Piaget: 1896-1980 Child Development Theory:
Piaget was the 1st psychologist to explore
how children develop their thinking abilities
and to understand that children actually think DIFFERENTLY than adults do until Piaget, it was believed that children
thought and processed information the
same way that adults do - that the only
difference was due to experience The science of Psychology was almost
exclusive to North America and Europe -
because of this, psychology had many
racial and gender barriers - psychologists
were almost exclusively white males White males dominated psychology
(and all sciences) because other people
rarely had the opportunity to gain the
education, knowledge, and training
necessary to become a scientist or
psychologist - remember that women were not given the right to vote until after 1920 Francis Sumner became the 1st
African-American to earn a Ph.D
in psychology in 1920 1954 - Brown v. Board of Education
of Topeka KS marked the 1st time
that psychological research played a
role in a Supreme Court decision Kenneth & Mamie Clark's research helped show
that internalized racism was a product of the stigmas
attached to the "separate but equal" schools of the
time and helped overturn segregation in schools
Their research showed that children attending a
segregated school viewed "white" as good and pretty
and "black" as bad and ugly
Kenneth Clark was the 1st African-American
president of the American Psychology Association 1879 Wundt opened the 1st
psychology laboratory 1890 James published the 1st
psychology textbook 1892 Hall founded the APA
American Psychological Association Titchener introduced
Structuralism 1900 Freud publishes "The Interpretation
of Dreams" and introduces Psychoanalysis 1905 Mary Whiton Calkins becomes
the 1st woman president of the APA Alfred Binet develops the
1st intelligence test 1906 Pavlov publishes his results on
learning by association - introducing
Behaviorism & Classical Conditioning 1908 Margaret Floy Washburn becomes
the 1st woman to receive a Ph.D
in psychology 1920 Francis Sumner becomes the
1st African-American to earn
a Ph.D in psychology 1926 Piaget publishes his research
on Child Development 1933 Inez Prosser becomes the 1st
African-American woman to
earn a Ph.D in psychology 1938 Skinner publishes his view on
Behaviorism and Operant Conditioning 1939 Kenneth & Mamie Clark begin
their research on segregation 1945 Karen Horney challenges the male
bias in Freud's psychoanalytic theory
and introduces Social-Cultural theory 1950 Erikson proposes his theory
of psychosocial development 1954 Maslow presents the
Humanistic perspective 1961 Bandura stresses the importance of
imitation in learning, proposing the
social-learning theory 1964 Sperry demonstrates the importance
of the brain in behavior with his
split-brain research 1969 John Berry introduces
cross-cultural research 1974 Eleanor Maccoby & Carol Jacklin
develop tests assessing and promoting
female competence 1977 Judith Rodin introduces
the importance of
perceived control Cognitive Developed in the 1960s, when
technology began to boom, this
theory supported the importance
of internal thought processes, but
began to scientifically explore the
ways we perceive, process, and
remember information This theory has been especially
beneficial in helping to develop
new ways to understand and
treat psychological disorders NATURE The biggest debate throughout the
history of psychology has always
been whether it should focus on
the influence of Nature or Nurture Nature is the Genetics or
Biological influence on
human behavior - everything
we are born with The Nature debate was heavily
influenced by the work of Charles Darwin
and his theory of Natural Selection -
that organisms adapt and change in ways
to best help them adapt to their environment NURTURE Nurture is everything OUTSIDE
of us that influences us - our family,
peers, the environment around us the Nature-Nurture debate asks questions
such as: "Is children's grammar mostly
innate (inborn) or formed by experience";
"Are gender differences biologically
predisposed or socially constructed" Over and over again, psychology has found that Nurture works on what Nature endows - psycholgy now believes that Nature and Nurture are so intertwined that they cannot be separated and must be studied together The BioPsychoSocial Approach is
the viewpoint that we must look at
behavior from three different levels
of analysis -
Biological influences
Psychological influences
Social-Cultural influences Neuroscience the Focus is on how the body and
brain enable emotions, memories,
and sensory experiences "How are messages transmitted within the body?"
"How is blood chemistry linked with moods and motives?" the Focus is on how the natural
selection of traits promotes the
perpetuation of one's genes "How does evolution influence
behavior tendencies?" Behavior Genetics the Focus is on how much our genes
and our environment influence our
individual differences "To what extent are psychological traits
such as intelligence, personality, sexual
orientation, and vulnerability to
depression attributable to our genes? To
our environment?" Psychodynamic the Focus is on how behavior springs
from unconscious drives and conflicts "How can someone's personality traits and
disorders be explained in terms of sexual and
aggressive drives or as the disguised effects
of unfulfilled wishes and childhood traumas?" Behavioral the Focus is on how we learn
Observable responses "How do we learn to fear particular
objects or situations?" "What is the
most effective way to change our
behavior of smoking, overeating, etc?" Social-Cultural the Focus is on how behavior and
thinking vary across situations
and cultures "How are we - as Africans, Asians, Americans -
alike as members of one human family?"
"As products of different environmental contexts,
how do we differ?" "How do we use information in remembering?
Reasoning? Solving problems?" Psychology is ONGOING - it will
never be hard and rigid like Math -
but will always strive to help us
understand why people think, feel
and act as they do end of lecture Remember: if you are
talking about Learning,
Observation, or Rewards
you are probably talking
about Behaviorism Remember: if you are talking
about free will; reaching your
full potential; "be all you can be"
you are probably talking about
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