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UNIT 4:

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Casey Hawley

on 16 August 2016

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Transcript of UNIT 4:

UNIT 4:
Global Health & Human Development
AREA OF STUDY ONE:
Introducing Global Health & Human Development

SIMILARITIES/DIFFERENCES IN HEALTH STATUS AND HDI
CLASSIFYING COUNTRIES
WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO)
COUNTRY CLASSIFICATION

Mortality Strata
- Establishes all member states into
5 quintiles
(5 Mortality Strata) based
on
child
and
adult mortality
- Child mortality =
U5MR
and Adult mortality =
male mortality aged 15-59


A =

VERY LOW
child mortality and
VERY LOW
adult mortality (Developed)

B =

LOW
child mortality and
LOW
adult mortality


C =
LOW
child mortality and
HIGH
adult mortality


D =
HIGH
child mortality and
HIGH
adult mortality (Developing)


E =

HIGH
child mortality and
VERY HIGH
adult mortality (Developing)
U4AOS1:
Introducing Global Health & Human Development
DATE:
WEDNESDAY 25TH JUNE
CHARACTERISTICS OF DEVELOPED COUNTRIES
DEVELOPED COUNTRIES...
E.G Australia/Canada/Italy/Sweden/United Kingdom/Japan
DEVELOPING COUNTRIES...
E.g. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, China, Guatemala, Kenya, Mozambique
UNITED NATIONS
COUNTRY CLASSIFICATION

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX
"The way the
UN
measures and
ranks countries
’ levels of social and economic development. It provides a single statistic based on
three dimensions

health
,
education
and
living standards
, and
four indicators

life expectancy
at birth,
mean years of schooling
,
expected years of schooling
and
gross national income
per capita. "

The HDI is a
Scale is from 0 – 1
with
0
including the
lowest level
of human development and
1
indicating the
very highest
level of
human development.

WEEKLY FOCUS
CHARACTERISTICS
of
developed
and
developing countries
, including
WHO's
high/low
mortality strata
;

DEFINITIONS
of
sustainability
(including the elements) and
human development
according to the
UN
, including the
human development index
;

KEY WORDS...
Developed ----- Developing ----- WHO ----- Mortality strata ----- Child mortality ----- Adult mortality ----- Strata A ----- Strata B ----- Strata C -----Strata D ----- Strata E ----- Human Development ----- UN ----- Human Development Index ----- Sustainability ----- Appropriatness ----- Affordability -----Equity ----- Sustainable Human Development

WEEKLY FOCUS
SIMILARITIES
and
DIFFERENCES
in
HEALTH STATUS
and
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
between developing countries and Australia in relation to
morbidity, mortality, life expectancy, burden of disease and human development index

INFLUENCE
on the
HEALTH STATUS
of
DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
compared to Australia of
Income
,
Gender Equality
,
Education
,
Access to healthcare
,
Peace/Political stability,

Global Marketing
, and
Physical Environment.

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX
Very High Human Development (.80 and 1) -----
DEVELOPED
High Human Development (.70 - .79) -----
DEVELOPING
Medium Human Development (.50 – 0.69) -----
DEVELOPING
Low Human Development (Below .50)-----
DEVELOPING

UNITED NATIONS KEY TERM...
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
"Creating an environment in which people can
develop to their full potential
and lead
productive, creative lives
according to their needs and interests. It is about
expanding people’s choices
and
enhancing their capabilities
, having
access to knowledge
,
health

and a
decent standard

of living
, and
participating
in the life of their
community
and decisions affecting their lives."
UNITED NATIONS
CALCULATING HDI:
Based on 3 DIMENSIONS and 4 INDICATORS
SUSTAINABILITY
"meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs."
DIMENSIONS OF SUSTAINABILITY
APPROPRIATE
"Implemented program addresses the needs of the target population. "

Example:
It would be APPROPRIATE for an organisation to implement a program to improve access to insecticide treated nets and anti malarial medication for a community with high child mortality as a result of malaria.

To ensure the appropriateness and sustainability of strategies/programs it is important to:
Involve the local people
Choose the right aid to reach poor people
Focus on involving and educating women
Focus on education
Ensure the cultural sensitivity of programs
ELEMENTS OF SUSTAINABLE PROGRAMS
AFFORDABLE:
"Must take into consideration that people living in poverty don’t have the money to access programs."

Example:
Organisations responsible for the implementation of the program must consider how they are to be funded to ensure maximal health benefits.

For a country to develop and implement sustainable programs, affordability of resources and services is a key component.


EQUITY
"Meeting the health needs of ALL individuals and community groups. "

To ensure the equity and sustainability of strategies it is important for:
Universal coverage
(All people in need have access)
People centred services
(Accessible and near by for the community)
Healthy public policies
(Takes into account needs of vulnerable groups)
Leadership
(Guide communities with necessary changes)

ELEMENTS OF SUSTAINABILITY
KEY WORDS...
Developed ----- Developing ----- Health Status ----- Life Expectancy ----- Mortality/Morbidity ----- U5MR ----- Burden of Disease ----- YLL ----- YLD -----DALY ----- HDI -----Mean Years of Schooling ----- Expected Years of Schooling ----- GNI ----- Communicable Disease ----- Non Communicable

Identify a trend (1 Mark)

Using data, compare Australia’s Life Expectancy and HALE with two other countries. (4 Marks)
LIFE EXPECTANCY/HALE
U5MR
Using data, compare Australia’s U5MR with two other countries.
(2 Marks)
ADULT MORTALITY (15 - 59Years)
BOD
Identify two differences between Australia’s BOD breakdown compared to another developing country (2 Marks)
MATERNAL MORTALITY
MORTALITY RATES FOR SELECTED CONDITIONS
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX
FACTORS
GENDER EQUALITY
“Men and women have equal opportunity in education, work, careers and access to services, to realise their individual potential”

When women have same power and control as men, their health outcomes improve

In many cultures and countries women have less power and control

What would a DEVELOPED country look like?
What would a DEVELOPING country look like?
ROLE OF THE WHO...
Provides leadership on global health issues and provides resources and support to countries that require help.
ROLE OF THE UN...
Bring all nations of the world together for peace and development.
LIFE EXPECTANCY:
How long a person can expect to live, if current mortality patterns don't change

MEAN YEARS OF SCHOOLING:
Average number of years of education achieved

EXPECTED YEARS OF SCHOOLING:
Number of years of education expected for a child of school entrance age

GROSS NATIONAL INCOME (GNI)
Overall income of a country after expenses owing to other countries have been paid divided by the population of the country
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICATOR KEY TERMS
Whilst Singapore has a higher GNI than Australia, outline why Australia has a higher HDI than Singapore?
(2 Marks)
FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE
GLOBAL U5 CHILD MORTALITY
Childhood deaths in developing countries make up around 99% of children global deaths
Identify 1 difference and 1 similarity in non communicable diseases between Australia and developing countries (2 Marks).
Compare the HDI between Australia and 2 developing countries. (2 Marks)
Using the data compare the health Status of Australia to that of two developing countries listed (2 Marks)
GENDER EQUALITY KEY STATS....
2/3 OF 775 million in the world who lack basic literacy skills are female

Women hold 3% of seats in national parliaments

300 000 women die each year from pregnancy complications
(99% in developing countries)

THE GIRL EFFECT
PEACE AND POLITICAL STABILITY...
“A country where there is no major conflict or war and is a place with a stable and supported government"
Lack of peace and political stability results in:
Lower Human Development or HDI
Shortages of food/water
Limited access to services and supplies
Limited access to education
Increase in injuries, mental distress, maternal and infant mortality
Higher level of abuse to women and children
Breakdown of laws
Unemployment
Trade restrictions
EDUCATION...
Education can affect health in many ways:

Promotes literacy, which can lead to higher SES, which can lead to improved access to essentials such as food, shelter and healthcare

More likely to have an understanding of health promotion messages

Improves communication which empowers them

Can break the cycle of poverty

EDUCATION KEY STATISTICS...
61 Million primary aged children and 71 million lower secondary school are not enrolled in school in 2013 (more than half of these are women)

Research shows, women who are educated are more likely to:
- Have healthier children
- Adopt health promoting behaviours
- Have fewer children

ACCESS TO HEALTHCARE...
Access to healthcare and health workers can assist in prevention of disease (E.g. immunisation and education)

More than 300,000 women die each year from preventable complications during pregnancy or childbirth

Access to immunisation is an example of healthcare that contributes to significant differences between Australian and several developing countries

REBECCA GIBNEY VISITS A MALAWI HOSPITAL
GLOBAL MARKETING...
“Involves selling products worldwide”

Advancements in technology , communications, science, transport and industry have resulted in increases in globalisation.

Can have a positive or negative effect on health and human development.

Tobacco, Alcohol and Processed foods have evolved in the which have had negative consequences on the developing world.

TOBACCO GLOBAL MARKETING
Tobacco companies have targeted developing countries to make up lost revenue from developed countries.
WHY?

What is happening in developing countries?
Extreme advertising/promotion which has increased rates of children smoking
Can purchase single cigarettes
Money spent on cigarettes means less money to spend on essential items and reduced risk of reaching their full potential
PREVALENCE OF CURRENT ADULT SMOKERS, 2009
ALCOHOL GLOBAL MARKETING
Global consumption has increased, most of this occurring in the developing world.

What is happening in developing countries?
Extreme advertising/promotion which has increased rates of misuse
Lack of education about alcohol harms
Money spent on alcohol means less money to spend on essential items and reduced risk of reaching their full potential
PROCESSED FOODS...
Due to marketing processed foods in the developing world their has been an increase in incidence of lifestyle diseases.

These developing countries are now facing the "double burden of disease".

What does the "double burden of disease" mean?

THEORY TO PRACTICE...
Explain how global marketing of 1 of ALCOHOL/CIGARETTES/PROCESSED FOODS can impact on the human development of people living in the developing world. (3 Marks)
PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT...
Includes:
Access to water and sanitation
Housing
Physical Infrastructure
Climate/Climate change
ACCESS TO WATER/SANITATION
Lack of clean water and sanitation are responsible for 10% of total global DALY’s and 6% global deaths

Dirty water/environment will lead to increased rates of infectious diseases (diarrhoea, typhoid and cholera)

HOUSING
In majority of developing countries housing is inadequate and contributes to ill health.

PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE
Structures required for adequate living in developing countries is poor. For example water and sanitation structures, roads, public transport, electricity etc.

CLIMATE/CLIMATE CHANGE
Rising temperatures/sea levels/different rainfall patterns/communicable diseases and air pollution will all impact the health and human development of individuals in developing countries.

FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE...
Explain how one aspect of the physical environment can impact the human development of an individual in a developing country.
(4 Marks)
INCOME (GNI)...
"Amount of income generated in a given year after expenses owing to other countries have been paid"

Low GNI countries generally experience high levels of poverty and lower health and human development.
How poverty impacts on HEALTH and HUMAN DEVELOPMENT?
Higher rates of malnutrition
Higher rates of maternal mortality
Higher U5MR
Greater gender inequality
Lower literacy rates
Full transcript