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Marijuana - Neuropsychology - Presentation One

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Natalie Douglas

on 16 June 2013

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Transcript of Marijuana - Neuropsychology - Presentation One

Marijuana
Police-reported crime and drug offence rates, Canada, 1977 to 2007
Police-reported drug offence rates, by type of drug, Canada, 1977 to 2007
Youth (12 to 17 years) accused of police-reported drug offences, Canada, 1986 to 2007
Persons accused of police-reported drug offences, by age of accused, 2007

A Neurophysiological Analysis...
smoke it
Eat it
OR
What is it?
CANNABIS
Marijuana
Route of administration?
pro legalization
anti legalization
Prefrontal cortex
Nucleus accumbens
VTA (Ventral tegmentum area)
Hello, my name is Mary-Jane and I smoke marijuana.
http://www.cannabisbrownies.net/
http://www.clker.com/clipart-164874.html
http://gyzym.tumblr.com/post/25133371839/the-common-sense-guide-to-marijuana
http://www.clker.com/clipart-29146.html
http://www.clker.com/clipart-body-outline.html
Breathing
Heart Rate
http://watchpaul.blogspot.ca/2011_06_01_archive.html
shorter process
basal ganglia
hypothalamus
hippocampus
cerebellum
longer process
medulla
CB2 receptors
Peripheral tissues
immune system
neurons & glial cells
in brain @ lower levels
studies have shown that weed is physiologically addictive because when an antagonist (blocks CB1 receptors so THC) is introduced withdrawal symptoms were demonstrated
in the 1970s and 1980s cannabis was not considered “a drug of addiction” but since the 1990s more studies have demonstrated symptoms of “ craving for cannabis, decreased appetite, sleep difficulty, weight loss, anger, aggression, increased irritability, restlessness, and strange dreams”
In many animal studies, tolerance was also shown to develop
In 2007, 62,510 of the 100, 675 police reported drug offences were because of cannabis.
Statistics Canada
ADDICTIVE?
Lungs
Blood
Blood-Brain Barrier
Mouth
THC
delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
basic most active ingredient in marijuana
example of a cannabinoid
Dioecious (male & female plants) - female plants are harvested
Green, brown, or gray mixture of dry, shredded leaves, stems, seeds and flowers of CANNABIS SATIVA hemp plant


Mind altering

Effects depends on potency/strength

Potency increased a lot from 1970s to mid-1980s
Citations:
A Young, et al. "Synthetic Cannabinoid And Marijuana Exposures Reported To Poison Centers." Human & Experimental Toxicology 31.10 (2012): 1006-1011. Academic Search Complete. Web. 2 Dec. 2012.
Mukhtar, Amna H., Nabiela M. Elbagir, and Abdulrahim A. Gubara. "Sex Hormones Levels As Influenced By Cannabis Sativa In Rats And Men." Pakistan Journal Of Nutrition 11.5 (2012): 419-422. Academic Search Complete. Web. 2 Dec. 2012.
Gerhold Kauert, et al. "Tolerance And Cross-Tolerance To Neurocognitive Effects Of THC And Alcohol In Heavy Cannabis Users." Psychopharmacology 214.2 (2011): 391-401. Academic Search Complete. Web. 2 Dec. 2012.
Finn, Kristin V. "Marijuana Use At School And Achievement-Linked Behaviors." High School Journal 95.3 (2012): 3-13. Academic Search Complete. Web. 2 Dec. 2012.
Barth Wilsey, et al. "Medical Marijuana: Clearing Away The Smoke." Open Neurology Journal 6.(2012): 18-25. Academic Search Complete. Web. 2 Dec. 2012.
Vadhan, Nehal P., Wilfred G. van Gorp, and Frances R. Levin. "Specificity Of Verbal Learning Impairment And Recovery In A Marijuana-Dependent Male: The Effects Of Sustained Marijuana Abstinence." Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 16.2 (2011): 158-173. Academic Search Complete. Web. 2 Dec. 2012.
Zhang Xia, et al. "Synaptic Neurotransmission Depression In Ventral Tegmental Dopamine Neurons And Cannabinoid-Associated Addictive Learning." Plos ONE 5.12 (2010): 1-11. Academic Search Complete. Web. 2 Dec. 2012.
Kathleen M. Carroll, et al. "Treatment Process, Alliance And Outcome In Brief Versus Extended Treatments For Marijuana Dependence." Addiction 105.10 (2010): 1799-1808. Academic Search Complete. Web. 2 Dec. 2012.
Swartz, Ronald. "Medical Marijuana Users In Substance Abuse Treatment." Harm Reduction Journal 7.(2010): 1-9. Academic Search Complete. Web. 2 Dec. 2012.
Malone, Daniel T, Matthew N Hill, and Tiziana Rubino. "Adolescent Cannabis Use And Psychosis: Epidemiology And Neurodevelopmental Models." British Journal Of Pharmacology 160.3 (2010): 511-522. Academic Search Complete. Web. 2 Dec. 2012.
Nadia Solowij, et al. "Chronic Cannabis Users Show Altered Neurophysiological Functioning On Stroop Task Conflict Resolution." Psychopharmacology 212.4 (2010): 613-624. Academic Search Complete. Web. 2 Dec. 2012.
Smith, Tricia H, Laura J Sim-Selley, and Dana E Selley. "Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor-Interacting Proteins: Novel Targets For Central Nervous System Drug Discovery?." British Journal Of Pharmacology 160.3 (2010): 454-466. Academic Search Complete. Web. 2 Dec. 2012.
David A. Gorelick, et al. "Sociodemographic Characteristics Of Cannabis Smokers And The Experience Of Cannabis Withdrawal." American Journal Of Drug & Alcohol Abuse 36.6 (2010): 311-319. Academic Search Complete. Web. 2 Dec. 2012.
"Study: Many Cannabis Withdrawal Symptoms "Clinically Significant." DATA: The Brown University Digest Of Addiction Theory & Application 29.12 (2010): 2-3. Academic Search Complete. Web. 2 Dec. 2012.
http://marijuanaaddictions.net/marijuana-addiction-withdrawal
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0740547203000412
http://jod.sagepub.com/content/42/1/28.short
http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2009002/article/10847-eng.htm#a2
•All forms (sensemilla, hashish, hash oil etc) contain active chemical delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
MARIJUANA
by Emily Ancill and Natalie Douglas
Some research suggests that cannabis use can effect neurodevelopment in adolescents and could lead to a better chance in predisposed people to getting schizophrenia
make more money regulating the sale (tax it like cigarettes to fund healthcare + education+violent crime)
still have background checks for retailers, stiff penalties to selling to minors
the public benefit from the lucrative business instead of drug dealers
Castle, David. Murray, Robin, and Deepak D’Souza. Marijuana and Madness. 2nd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012. Print.
Tilstone, William. Savage, Kathleen, and Leigh Clark. Forensic Science. An encyclopedia of History, Methods, and Techniques. Santa Barbara:
ABC-CLIO, Inc., 2006. Print.
Treatment methods
What does it feel like?
Why do people do it?
Munchies, great music, distorted reality, amplified experiences...
Relax - avoid stress
Societal Pressure
Fun
Addicted?
this is funny because 'Mary-Jane' is another name for marijuana....
group of different chemical compounds that activate cannabinoid receptors
Full transcript