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Alan Turing and Colossus

It would be impossible to fit the whole history of the development of the computer on one timeline, this Prezi just shows some of the highlights!
by

Alistair Surrall

on 16 December 2013

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Transcript of Alan Turing and Colossus

1822
Charles Babbage
(1791-1871) designed the
first automatic computer
. He designed a steam powered calculating device called the
Difference Engine
but couldn't build his design because he didn't have enough money!
A brief history of computers
Managing this massive empire required
huge tables of data.
These tables were used for lots of things but especially for navigating ships!
These tables were made by hand and often contained lots of mistakes!
Charles Babbage
designed a machine that would calculate these tables without making any mistakes!
The machine he designed was called the
Difference Engine.
The
Difference Engine
would have calculated all the numbers
automatically using steam
!

So no more mistakes!
Not much good if you are trying to sail a ship!
This is a video of a
Difference Engine
made in 2008 it works perfectly but doesn't use
steam
.
Charles Babbage
Unfortunately
Charles Babbage
never made the
Difference Engine
because it was so expensive and he didn't have the right tools!
But he had the idea, made the design and it would have worked!!!
1943
Alan Turing
(1912 – 1954) Invented
Colossus
the worlds
first electronic computer
. He used it to crack German codes during World War Two and saved thousands of lives.
Alan Turing
1984
Steve Jobs (1955-2011)
Founded Apple Computers in 1976. In 1984 they were the first company to use the idea of using Windows, Icons, Menus and a mouse to control a computer. Before this computers had to be controlled by writing instructions.
Steve Jobs
1992
The
IBM Simon
was created in 1992. It was the worlds first smart phone. It had a calendar, address book, world clock, calculator, note pad, e-mail, and games. It even used a touch screen!
Smart Phone
Before Apple computers had to be controlled by typing in instructions.
This meant remembering hundreds of instructions
Being able to use Windows, Icons, Menus and pointers was slower but much easier to learn!
Microsoft 'borrowed' the idea and soon everyone was using it
.
Now anybody could use a computer, quickly and easily!
300 BC
Ancient Babylonians
The Babylonians were an advanced civilization.
They had a large empire and needed to calculate lots of taxes.
They recorded their calculations on stone tablets!
So it was important to get their calculations right first time!
They invented the Abacus to help them count quickly and accurately.
This was the first tool used to help perform calculations
!
Therefore the first computer!
Lets see how it worked!
2500 BC
The Stone age
During the stone age (4500 BC to 2000 BC)
stone age people
stopped being hunter gatherers and began to settle down in small villages to farm the land. There is a theory that they built
Stone Henge
as
a device to help with calculations
about the best time to plant crops .
When
stone age

people
started farming they needed to know when the best time to plant and harvest their crops was!
To help them do this
stone age people
built
Stone Henge
!
At certain times of year the sun would cast shadows in particular places. So they would know that now was the time to plant their crops!
Because it was built so long ago nobody is really sure if
Stone Henge
was the first computer.
But it's a nice theory!
In 1943 Britain was at war with Germany in
The Second World War.
The Lorenz SZ42
The Enigma Machine
The Germans were encrypting their messages using complicated encryption machines.
Encryption means turning your message into cypher-text that only someone who knows the code can understand.
A
=B
B
=C
C
=D
D
=E
E
=F
F
=G
G
=H
H
=I
I
=J
J
=K
K
=L
L
=M
M
=N
N
=O
P
=Q
Q
=R
R
=S
S
=T
T
=U
U
=V
V
=W
W
=X
X
=Y
Y
=Z
Z
=A
"
attack at dawn
"
"
buubdl bu ebxn
"
During the war both sides had to send messages to their troops telling them what to do.
But they needed to make sure that the enemy wouldn't understand the messages if they were intercepted!
To do this they used secret codes to write their messages
!
For example by replacing each letter with another one.
Nobody could break the German codes!
To crack the German codes
Alan Turing
invented the
Colossus
!
Colossus
was the first electronic computer!
It filled an entire room!
It is thought that by allowing the British to break German codes
Colossus

shortened the Second World War by 4 years and saved hundreds of thousands of lives!
1972
As new materials and inventions became available computers became much smaller and much more powerful!

The HP 9830A was one of the first computers that could fit on top of a desk, it even had its own printer!
Desktop Computer
It is thought that the
Ancient Babylonian
s invented the
Abacus.

The first mechanical device to aid in calculations
, therefore the first computer!
In the 1800s Britain was managing the largest empire ever to exist.
Full transcript