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Transcript of Persepolis Intro
Images from Shutterstock.com An Intro to the Iranian Revolution and the Graphic Novel Persepolis IRAN: Key Facts
language: Persian spoken by majority,
turkish, english, french spoken by some as well.
Population: 65.5 Million Events leading up the 1979 Iranian Revolution 1941 1979 Iran and the rest of the world 1941 Shah- a hereditary monarch of Persia or Iran. Shah comes from the old persian word for "king" At the end of World War II, Iran was ruled by Reza Shah Pahlavi, second in the Pahlavi dynasty established by his father. Though he contributed to the economic development of Iran through its oil industry, the Shah was not a popular leader. He suppressed political dissent, alienated the Islamic establishment and was seen as letting the West exploit Iran's rich oil resources. 1963 White revolution:
shah introduced reforms to liberalize the nation:women’s suffrage
Land reform to help poor
Greater access to health care
Free and required schooling for all students from kindergarten to 14 years old
There were positive influences from the reforms, but increased gap between rich and poor, as well as led to more opposition of the Shah. People were afraid that the country was becoming to liberal at the expense of religion and tradition.
Led to Ayatollah Khomeini and several other Islamic reglious leaders to organize a counterrevolution aimed at overthrowing the Shah 1963 continued Ayatollah Khomeini had a following that began to riot against the Shah and his reforms. The Shah grew nervous about all the oporsitions an sent the Ayatollah to prison and then exiled him.
The shah worked hard to modernize Iran, he wanted to transform the economy by creating American style markets at the expense of the traditional local agriculture that comprised most of the market at the time. He worked to create American style shopping malls which slowly put merchants out of business.
The regime worked to modernize the country, but it did at the detriment of tradition which led to dissasstification among a lot of the Iranian people. The shah became worried about his opposition and merged all the political parties into one called Ratakhiz (resurgence) in 1975 and crested his own secret police. This CIA trained police used brutal tactics and torture methods on anyone in oppositon of the regime. 1978 and Black Friday In 1978 opposition grew against the shah and riots began. Things started to get more and more violent.
The shah imposed martial law in Tehran and sent troops to demonstrators in Jaleh square-killing over 500 people. This day beame known as black Friday and led to an uprising. 1979 Ayatollah Returns Opposition grew, more riots ocured and the Shah knew he had lost
control of his people In January of 1979 the Shah fled the country and ayatollah Kohmeni reutrned to Iran.
In April 1979 the Ayatollah announced that Iran would now be known as the Islamic Republic of Iran. He called it "God's Government" and began a very conservative ruling of Iran.
The graphic novel Persepolis depicts changes that occur in Iran after the Islamic government is announced. Well see the push of the government and schools to eliminate any American/Western influence on Iran. The Ayatollah wanted the country to return to strict, religious and conservative values. Iran's Government, The ayatollah and the U.S. The U.S. was involved in Iran for a long time mostly because of Oil, but things changes when the Ayatollah took over. With the monarchy now history, moderate opposition leaders tried to turn Iran into a modern parliamentary democracy, but within a month Khomeini had seized power and declared the establishment of "God's government": an Islamic theocracy, ruled by clerics acting in accordance with Sharia, or Islamic law. The new constitution provided for an elected legislature and President, but the real power lay with a small and secretive group of clerics (or mullahs) called the Council of Guardians, headed by Khomeini, the Supreme Leader.
Khomeini loathed the United States, which he called "the Great Satan" and "an enemy of Islam." Iranian anger at the U.S. reached a fever pitch that October when President Carter allowed the Shah, who was suffering from cancer, to come to the U.S. for treatment. On November 4, thousands of young Iranians, many of them college students, swarmed the U.S. embassy in Tehran, seizing 66 Americans inside. (Thirteen were released after a couple of weeks and one was released months later due to illness.) Ayatollah Khomeni Ayatollah Khomeni was a religious scholar that was heavily involved in politics. In
1960, he began writing and preaching against the Shah which led to his exile. He continued his work against the Shah and created cassette tapes to broadcast his messages against the Shah and had them smuggled into Iran. He became the face of the revolution!In march there was a nationwide vote to declare Iran an Islamic republic.
Khomeini called in “the first day of God’s Government” He was very conservative in his rulings.He introduced Sharia (Islamic Law)-Included modest dress codeUnder his rule,
Iranian women were denied equal rights and required to wear a veil, Western culture was banned, and traditional Islamic law and its often-brutal punishments were reinstated. In suppressing opposition, Khomeini proved as ruthless as the shah, and thousands of political dissidents were executed during his decade of rule. Persepolis by Marjene Satrapi Marjene Satrapi Iranian born French, author of graphic
novels, illustrator, and director .
She was born November 22nd, 1969
Her first two graphic novels Persepolis
and Persepolis 2 were originally published in French in 2000. These
two novels are autobiographical and share most of her childhood to teenage life.
The graphic novels were turned into a animated film in 2007. Persepolis, the animated film won an Oscar in the U.S. in 2008. Religion:
Of the 98% Muslim population, 89% are Shi'a and 9% are Sunni. The remaining 2% consists of Christian, Jewish, Zoroastrian and Baha'i faiths Persepolis Themes we'll be exploring while reading this graphic novel....
Essential Question: How do personal revolutions and societal revolutions shape an individual's identity? Quick Journal response:
How do you define Revolution? According to the Oxford Dictionary a revolution is:
1. a forcible overthrow of a government or social order, in favour of a new system
2. a dramatic and wide-reaching change in conditions, attitudes, or operation