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Light, Sound & Waves

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Trang Nguyen

on 1 March 2013

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Transcript of Light, Sound & Waves

Light, Sound
& Waves by: Trang Nguyen Waves Sound What is Sound? Hearing Situations of Sound Thank you for reading The Types Characteristics What are Waves? What is Light? Sight The Ways of Light Light travel in straight lines in all directions
arrows known as "rays" measure the path of light waves after it is refracted (by lenses) or reflected (by a mirror).
the shape of a mirror affects how light reflects.
plane mirrors have flat surfaces and makes your complete image reflect back at you
concave mirrors are curved inward and form virtual images
depends on three things; optical axis, focal point, and focal length of mirror
a lens is a transparent object that forms an image by refracting light
convex - lens that are thicker in the middle than at the edges & refract light towards each other
concave - lens that are thinner in the middle than at the edges and refract light away from each other visible light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be picked up by the eyes.
Two common vision problems happen when light is not focused on the retina:
nearsightedness happens when the eye is too long, which causes the lens to focus light in front of the retina.
farsightedness happens when a person’s eye is too short, which causes the lens to focus light behind the retina.
About 5% to 8% of men and 0.5% of women in the world have color deficiency or or colorblindness which happens when the cones in the retina do not work properly - any disturbance that transmits energy through matter or empty space
i.e. ocean waves that people surf, light waves from a lamp, sound waves from a trumpet
waves do work on every thing on it's path as it moves
most need a medium (a solid, gas or liquid) to transfer it's vibrations (back and forth movement of particles) through transverse waves - when particles vibrate up and down or perpendicular (forming right angles)
the highest point is called the crest and the lowest point this the trough
all electromagnetic waves are transverse (i.e. light waves)
longitudinal wave - the particles of the medium vibrate back and forth, very similar to a spring
the part that is more packed together is called the compression and the one where it is more spread is the rarefaction
all sound waves are longitudinal waves amplitude - height of a wave from it's starting point
larger = more energy
wavelength - distance between any two crests or compressions next to each other in a wave
shorter = more energy
frequency - number of waves produced in a given amount of time
expressed in hertz prezi for Energy and Waves Unit Acceleration Activities sound waves are longitudinal waves caused by vibrations, carried through a substance and transfers energy
air and other matter does not travel with the sound waves
all sound waves need a medium (a physical environment in which a phenomena occurs) [most go through air, but it can be any solid, gas or liquid]
it goes through solids fastest and gases slowest
the cooler the medium, the slower the sound; the warmer the medium, the faster the sound
there can be no sound in space because there is no medium nor are there particles to vibrate
when amplitude increase, loudness increase
loudness expressed in decibel
when frequency increase, pitch increase
frequency too high for people to hear are called ultrasonic
the Doppler effect is the change in the frequency of a sound caused by the motion of either the listener or the source of the sound your ears change sound waves into electrical signals that allow you to hear
the outer ear collects the sound waves
then the vibrations go to the middle ear where small organs increase the size of the vibrations
vibrations are then picked up by the inner ear organs
the inner ear changes the vibrations into electronic signals that travel to the brain
when any part of the ear is damaged or does not work properly, it can result in hearing loss or deafness.
tinnitus results in long-term exposure to loud sound
short exposures to sound that are loud enough to be painful can also cause hearing loss. reflection is the bouncing back of a wave after it strikes a barrier
reflected sound waves are called "echos"
sound reflect best off smooth, hard surfaces.
echolocation is the process of using reflected sound waves to find objects
animals (dolphins, bats, and Beluga whales) use echolocation to hunt food and to find objects in their paths
Sonar is a type of electronic echolocation that is used to locate objects underwater
Ultrasonography is also a type of echolocation that is used in the medical field to "see" inside a patient's body. an electromagnetic wave waves cause by vibrations traveling through a medium a disturbance that transmits energy through matter or space electromagnetic wave (EM wave) - a wave that can travel through empty space & matter and consists of electric & magnetic fields
are produced by the vibrations of electronically charged particles.
electromagnetic waves transfers energy in a process called "radiation"
speed of light is 300,000,000 m/s in space
travels slower in matter (air, water, ect.)
880,000x faster than sound
Sunlight (EM waves from sun) is a major source of energy for Earth. The Eye Your eye gathers light to form the images that you see
light is refracted as it passes through the cornea (the membrane that protects the eye)
light passes through the pupil (opening in the eye)
size of pupil is controlled by the iris (colored part of the eye)
the lens of the eye is convex and refracts light to focus the real image to the back of the eye (the retina)
light is detected by the retina by receptors called rods and cones
nerves attached to the rods and cones send the info to the brain Source: Science book & notes 4th period
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