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Nonverbal Communication

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Shelby Philbrook

on 20 September 2014

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Transcript of Nonverbal Communication

Nonverbal Communication is Present in Most Communication Contexts
Nonverbal Communication
By: Chloe Baker, Claire Wolken, Emma Rogers, Shelby Philbrook, and Joy Donnelly
How to Improve Your Nonverbal Communication
Be Sensitive
Pay special attention to facial expressions, tone of voice, and body movement
Decipher the Meaning
Consider the social situation and nonverbal behavior
Consider cultural differences
Expressing Nonverbal Communication
Spend time with highly expressive people
Take part in games like charades
What is Nonverbal Communication?
Behaviors and characteristics that convey meaning without the use of words.
We're going to introduce some of the most important reasons why nonverbal communication plays such an important role in human interaction.
6 Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication
Nonverbal Communication Often Conveys More Information Than Verbal Communication
Nearly all information we receive from communicating with others is through nonverbal communications
65-70% of meaning comes from nonverbal cues
leaving only 30-35% to be interpreted through the verbal communication
Nonverbal Channels - the various behavioral forms that nonverbal communication takes
Visual: facial expressions, gestures, personal appearance
Hearing: vocal characteristics such as loudness, pitch, and tone
Touch: handshake or a hug
Smell: subtle messages of attraction
Sometimes we rely on clues from nonverbal channels to make sense of a situation when talking isn't a good option.
Nonverbal Communication is the Primary Means of Expressing Emotion
Large verbal vocab for describing our emotions, but our nonverbal behaviors do it much for effeciently
Two channels of nonverbal communication that are particularly important in the communication of emotion are facial expressions and vocal behaviors
Facial expressions of our most basic emotions (happy, sad, fear, etc.) are understood similarly around the world
How many times have you been able to tell how someone is feeling just by looking at him/her?
Nonverbal Communication Serves Multiple Functions
Helps us Manage Conversation
Nonverbal Signals- such as raising one's hand in class when they wish to speak
Helps us Maintain Relationships
Immediacy Behaviors- nonverbal signs of affection and affiliation
Ex: smiling, engaging in affectionate touch, warm vocal tones, standing close to one another
Helps us Form Impressions
"Judging a book by its cover"
We form impressions about a person's personality, education level, cultural background, etc by observing the way that person looks, sounds, dresses, etc (not always accurate)
Helps us Influence Other People
We can adjust certain visual cues to make ourselves appear more authoritative
Helps us Conceal Information
Our voice increases in pitch, we use fewer gestures, and our posture becomes rigid when we lie
Nonverbal Communication is Usually Believed Over Verbal Communication
Nonverbal Communication Metacommunicates
8 Channels of Nonverbal Communication
1. Facial Displays
Facial displays convey more information than any other channel

Facial Displays Are Important For:
Identity: The face is how we identify others and ourselves
Attractiveness: Includes face symmetry and proportions. The ideal result is called the "Golden Ratio"
Shows emotions
Facial Displays Game!
1. Partner up
2. Take an emotion
3. Take turns demonstrating and guessing what emotion is being shown
2. Eye Behaviors
Eyes do the most facial communicating
Can be used to show expressions
Eye contact is important for showing attention, persuasion, intimidation, sincerity, etc.
3. Touch Behaviors
Affection
Between parent and child, couples, friends
Hugging, kissing, etc.
Caregiving
Services: getting a hair cut, teeth cleaning, etc

Aggressive
Done to inflict harm
Ritualistic
Customs and traditions
Vary depending on culture
Gender Influences and Nonverbal Communication
Emotional Expressiveness
Women are more expressive involving joy, affection, and sadness
Men are more expressive with anger
Personal Space
Men are more likely to violate a woman's personal space than the reverse
Touch
Men are more likely to touch a woman than a woman is to touch a man
Women touch each other more than men touch each other
Eye Contact
Western cultures think that direct eye contact is sincere and trustworthy
Asian, Latin America, and Middle Eastern countries believe that lack of eye contact shows deference and respect
Greeting Behavior
Shaking hands
Kissing on both cheeks
Bowing
Time Orientation
Monochromic cultures: cultures that they appreciate timeliness and see "time as money"
Polychromic cultures: cultures that view time as flexible
Can you guess which one the United States would be?
Culture and Nonverbal
Communication
Emblems
Gesture for "come here" in the U.S. means goodbye in China, Italy, and Colombia
Affect Displays
Displays of emotion
Chinese women show emotional satisfaction by holding their fingertips over closed mouths
Personal Distance
Arabs converse closer than most Americans, which means that they believe that Americans are quite aloof. However, Americans think that some Arabs are overbearing

Culture Continued
4. Physical Appearance
Halo Effect: we associate positive attributes with attractive people
Why good looking people have "better luck"
Sometimes people are nicer to other based on their physical appearance
5. Movements and Gestures
Gesticulation: the use of arm and hand movements to communicate
Most people use gestures before they even begin speaking
Types:
Emblems: gestures that have a direct verbal translation (waving= hello/goodbye)
Illustrators: gestures that go along with a verbal message to clarity ("It was this big")
Regulators: gestures that control conversation (raising your hand to speak)
6. Vocal Behaviors
Vocal in nonverbal because it's referring to all of the sounds except the words themselves
Main Vocal Characteristics:
Pitch: index of how high or deep your voice it
Inflection: the variation in pitch
Volume: index of how lout or quite your voice is
Rate: refers to how fast or slowly you speak
Filler words: non-word sounds like "um" and "uh"
Pronunciation: refers to how correctly you combine vowel and consonant sounds to say a word
Articulation/Enunciation: describes how clearly you speak
Accent: a pattern of pronouncing vowel and consonant sounds that is representative of a particular language or geographic area
Silence: the absence of sound
7. Use of Smell
Memory
Scents can make us think of a particular place, time, or person
This is called Olfactic Association
Has the potential to affect our emotions
Sexual Attraction
Smell plays a role in who we find sexually attractive
We are drawn to people whose natural body scent is most different from our own
Our brains associate similar smells with relation to each other
8. Use of Space
Western Cultures had 4 Spacial Zones
Intimate Space: willingly occupied only with intimate friends, family members, and romantic partners (0-1.5 ft)
Personal Space: occupied with close friends and relatives(1.5-4 ft)
Social Distance: occupied with casual acquaintances (4-12 ft)
Public Distance: maintained during a public presentation like a speech
Nonverbal clues given off in face to face conversations
facial expressions, tone of voice, type of clothing, the way someone smells, etc.
MANY nonverbal clues are given off in social situations
Nonverbal clues given off through the use of electronics (telephone, email, text, social media)
pauses, ellipses, exclamation points, CAPS LOCK, etc.
use of emoticons
emoticons
: textual representations of facial expressions
:) :D :( ;) :/ :P
not as much access to nonverbal clues as in face-to-face situations

Conflicting messages are common in nonverbal communication
people use nonverbal clues (as well as tone) to detect sarcasm
Why are people more likely to believe nonverbal communication?
actions speak louder than words
people have more difficulty hiding nonverbal clues than verbal ones
Useful in detecting deception
deception
: the act of leading others to believe something the speaker knows to be untrue
inconsistent verbal and nonverbal behaviors when lying
Metacommunication
: communication about communication
phrases are used to avoid miscommunication
"Let me tell you what I think." "Don't take this the wrong way." "I'm just kidding."
nonverbal behaviors are ways to metacommunicate
facial expressions and gestures
Full transcript