1930

**Psychological**

**Social**

**Political**

Spark

1935

Brownell

Psychological Considerations

1830: Indian Removal Act forces Native Americans west of the Mississippi.

1831: J. Henry invents electric motor

and telegraph.

1832: OREGON TRAIL becomes main route to the West.

1833: Businessmen plan out KANSAS CITY

1836: Congress decides slavery is a matter for individual states.

1880

1855

1846: Californians declare independence from Mexico.

1855: "Bleeding Kansas" civil war in Kansas over free/slave factions.

1859: Internal Combustion engine invented.

Women's Rights Movement

1862: HOMESTEAD ACT give free land in West.

1858-1867: MN, OR, KS, WV, NV, NE join the Union.

CIVIL WAR (1861-1865)

1863: Emancipation Proclamation

1864: First steel produced in US. Industrialization begins to boom.

1866: Cattle Trails connect to Railroad.

1870: POPULATION 40 MILLION

1872: 1st National Park est. (Yellowstone)

1877: DEPRESSION - High unemployment.

1878: Women allowed to vote.

1884: World is divided into 24 time zones.

1886: US is world's biggest steel producer.

1880-1890: Unions grow (many labor strikes)

1896: 1st modern Olympics in Athens, Greece.

1900: POPULATION 75.9 MILLION

1903: Wright Brothers make 1st powered flight.

1903, 1908: Ford and General Motors established.

1907: A RECORD 1.25 MILLION IMMIGRANTS ARRIVE

1910: Census reports POPULATION 91.9 MILLION

1905

Drill and Practice

1920-1930

Meaningful Arithmetic

1930-1950

New Math

1950s-1970s

Back to Basics

1970s-1980s

Problem Solving

1980s-1990s

**Standards and Accountability**

1990s-Present

1990s-Present

Recommendations of the Committee of Ten - 1898

1. To the close of the secondary-school course the

required work should be the same for all pupils

2. The formal instruction in arithmetic as such should terminate with the close of the seventh grade.

3. Concrete geometry should be a part of the work in arithmetic and drawing in the first six grades.

4. One half the time allotted to mathematics in the seventh grade should be given to the beginning of demonstrative geometry

5. In the eighth grade the time allotted to mathematics should be divided equally between demonstrative geometry and the beginning of algebra.

6.

In the secondary school, work in mathematics should be required of all pupils throughout each of the four years

of the course.

7. Wherever, from local conditions, it is necessary to defer the beginning of geometry and algebra to the secondary school, here, likewise, geometry should be begun before algebra.

8. When once begun, the subjects of

geometry and algebra should be developed simultaneously

, insofar, at least, that both geometry and algebra should be studied in each of the four years of the secondary school course.

9. The unity of the work in mathematics is emphasized, and correlation and interapplication of its different parts recommended.

10. The instruction should have as its chief aim the cultivation of independent and correct thinking on the part of the pupil.

11. The importance of thorough preparation for teachers, both in mathematical attainments and in the art of teaching, is emphasized.

Increasing School Population

Psychological Movement

Efficiency Movement

1820 - Algebra required

for college entrance by

Harvard

Efficiency & Social Movement

1850: POPULATION 23.2 MILLION

1870: POPULATION 40 MILLION

1900: POPULATION 75.9 MILLION

Social:

Need to be Globally Competitive

Importance of Balancing Concepts & Skills

1890:

Teachers calling for Algebra reform to be connected and conceptual and less "mechanical"

(pg. 161 Ch.12)

Premise of the Current Common Core Movement

1922:

Thorndike publishes The Psychology of Arithmetic - resulting in a theory focused on deconstructing standards into discrete skills with less focus on concepts.

Led to current practice of focusing on discrete skills for standardized testing purposes in present day math education.

Political:

Chief State School Officers &

National Governor's Association

1910: Census reports POPULATION 91.9 MILLION

1917: US declares WAR on Germany WWI (ends 1918)

1919-1933: PROHIBITION (alcohol ban)

1921: US enters recession

1925: Scopes "Monkey Trials" on teaching evolution.

1927: AT&T demonstrate the television. (NBC's 1st show aired 1929)

1929: WALL STREET CRASH triggers Great Depression.

1932: UNEMPLOYMENT reaches 13 million.

1933-1937: DUST BOWL (3.3 Million leave Great Plains states)

1840: POPULATIONOVER 17 MILLION

1960: POPULATION approx. 180 MILLION

1970: POPULATION 203 MILLION

1980: POPULATION 226 MILLION + 3-6 MILLION ILLEGAL ALIENS

1990: POPULATION 249 MILLION

(1 in 4 Americans belongs to a minority group)

Business model was very important,

causing schools to focus more on results

based on evaluations.

•Discovery Learning

•Spiral curriculum

•Study of mathematical structures

Theories from Piaget, Bruner, & Dienes are introduced to help teach students. These are sociocultural theories and theories of Developmental Psychology to help instruct how students learn best.

•Back to Drill & Practice

•Learning the facts

Understand how something works

Students learn the whys

Connectionism

(again)

Skill Development

Factual knowledge

•Discovery Learning

•Problem Solving

Vygotsky's theories are used to help understand how to instruct students.

Problem Solving

Thinking Processes

1894-1923:

Wilson conducted the Connersville study, the conclusion was that schools should be teaching material that will be beneficial for the child when they are adults.

The reason for this impact was that America during this time was going through a transition of becoming an industrial nation and

math instruction was designed to prepare students for life in an industrial society

.

1821-1894: During this period

arithmetic passed from the high schools

to the elementary school.

Algebra becomes a part of curriculum

in high school, with geometry following.

Teacher training including formal teacher

training began to be part of universities as

early as 1832.

Increases in population

and an industrial society led

to more students not going to

college after high school, leading

to diversification in what was

being taught in high schools.

Due to the lack of standardization

and expectations of what was being

taught in high schools, the College

Entrance Exam Board was established

to bring uniformity. Had huge impact

on what is being taught secondary schools.

1935

1939-1941: WWII

1939: "Separate but Equal" Gaines v Canada

1954: Brown v. Board of Education

1957: USSR launches Sputnik

1958: Eisenhower signs National Defense Education Act

1958: School Mathematics Study Group established

1959: Woods Hole Conference

1959: Commission on Mathematics publishes final report

1961: Bay of Pigs, Berlin Wall Built

1962: President Kennedy speech at Rice University about Apollo Program

1962: Purdue University establishes first Department of Computer Science

1964: Civil Rights Act

1965: Elementary & Secondary Education Act

1965: US ground troops sent to Vietnam

1967: First hand-held calculator from Texas Instruments

1969: First Moon Landing (Apollo II)

Standards and Accountability

1990s - 2000s

1989 NRC

Everybody Counts

1989 NCTM

Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics

NCTM

Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics

1992 California Math Frameworks

Mid-1990s Math Wars - basic skills vs conceptual understanding

Mathematically Correct (traditionalists) vs Mathematically Sane (progressivists)

1991 & 1994 NSF grants - Urban Systematic Initiative

1994 Goals 2000 Educate America Act

1995 NCTM

Assessment Standards for Teaching Mathematics

1996 TIMSS

1999 Liping Ma

Knowing and Teaching Elementary

Mathematics - Comparative study of China and U.S.

2000, 2001

Principles and Standards for School Mathematic

s &

Adding It Up

published, respectively

2001 No Child Left Behind Act

Constructivism

Sociocultural Theory

RME (Realistic Mathematics Instruction)

CGI (Cognitively Guided Instruction)

Social Justice

Business and Industry

Math Educators vs Mathematicians

Population increase of nearly 33 million

-Immigration from Latin America, Caribbean, & Asia

Political Agenda

-attempt to be 1st in world in Math by 2000

1990 WWW

1992 Rodney King - LA Riots

1995 Oklahoma Bombings

1999 Digital Downloading - Copyright issues

1980 - Agenda for Action

1983 - Nation At Risk

1986 - NCTM creates commission on standards for school mathematics

1987 - Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics

1989 - NCTM - Released Standards to emphasize K-4, 5-8,9-12