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History of Math Education: A Timeline

A work in progress
by

David Allen

on 8 May 2015

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Transcript of History of Math Education: A Timeline

1830
1930
Psychological
Social
Political
Spark
1935
Brownell
Psychological Considerations
1830: Indian Removal Act forces Native Americans west of the Mississippi.
1831: J. Henry invents electric motor
and telegraph.
1832: OREGON TRAIL becomes main route to the West.
1833: Businessmen plan out KANSAS CITY
1836: Congress decides slavery is a matter for individual states.
1880
1855

1846: Californians declare independence from Mexico.
1855: "Bleeding Kansas" civil war in Kansas over free/slave factions.
1859: Internal Combustion engine invented.
Women's Rights Movement
1862: HOMESTEAD ACT give free land in West.
1858-1867: MN, OR, KS, WV, NV, NE join the Union.
CIVIL WAR (1861-1865)
1863: Emancipation Proclamation
1864: First steel produced in US. Industrialization begins to boom.
1866: Cattle Trails connect to Railroad.
1870: POPULATION 40 MILLION
1872: 1st National Park est. (Yellowstone)
1877: DEPRESSION - High unemployment.
1878: Women allowed to vote.
1884: World is divided into 24 time zones.
1886: US is world's biggest steel producer.
1880-1890: Unions grow (many labor strikes)
1896: 1st modern Olympics in Athens, Greece.
1900: POPULATION 75.9 MILLION
1903: Wright Brothers make 1st powered flight.
1903, 1908: Ford and General Motors established.
1907: A RECORD 1.25 MILLION IMMIGRANTS ARRIVE
1910: Census reports POPULATION 91.9 MILLION
1905
Drill and Practice
1920-1930
Meaningful Arithmetic
1930-1950
New Math
1950s-1970s
Back to Basics
1970s-1980s
Problem Solving
1980s-1990s
Standards and Accountability
1990s-Present

Recommendations of the Committee of Ten - 1898
1. To the close of the secondary-school course the
required work should be the same for all pupils
2. The formal instruction in arithmetic as such should terminate with the close of the seventh grade.
3. Concrete geometry should be a part of the work in arithmetic and drawing in the first six grades.
4. One half the time allotted to mathematics in the seventh grade should be given to the beginning of demonstrative geometry
5. In the eighth grade the time allotted to mathematics should be divided equally between demonstrative geometry and the beginning of algebra.
6.
In the secondary school, work in mathematics should be required of all pupils throughout each of the four years
of the course.
7. Wherever, from local conditions, it is necessary to defer the beginning of geometry and algebra to the secondary school, here, likewise, geometry should be begun before algebra.
8. When once begun, the subjects of
geometry and algebra should be developed simultaneously
, insofar, at least, that both geometry and algebra should be studied in each of the four years of the secondary school course.
9. The unity of the work in mathematics is emphasized, and correlation and interapplication of its different parts recommended.
10. The instruction should have as its chief aim the cultivation of independent and correct thinking on the part of the pupil.
11. The importance of thorough preparation for teachers, both in mathematical attainments and in the art of teaching, is emphasized.
Increasing School Population
Psychological Movement
Efficiency Movement
1820 - Algebra required
for college entrance by
Harvard
Efficiency & Social Movement
1850: POPULATION 23.2 MILLION
1870: POPULATION 40 MILLION
1900: POPULATION 75.9 MILLION
Social:

Need to be Globally Competitive
Importance of Balancing Concepts & Skills
1890:
Teachers calling for Algebra reform to be connected and conceptual and less "mechanical"

(pg. 161 Ch.12)

Premise of the Current Common Core Movement
1922:
Thorndike publishes The Psychology of Arithmetic - resulting in a theory focused on deconstructing standards into discrete skills with less focus on concepts.

Led to current practice of focusing on discrete skills for standardized testing purposes in present day math education.
Political:
Chief State School Officers &
National Governor's Association
1910: Census reports POPULATION 91.9 MILLION
1917: US declares WAR on Germany WWI (ends 1918)
1919-1933: PROHIBITION (alcohol ban)
1921: US enters recession
1925: Scopes "Monkey Trials" on teaching evolution.
1927: AT&T demonstrate the television. (NBC's 1st show aired 1929)
1929: WALL STREET CRASH triggers Great Depression.
1932: UNEMPLOYMENT reaches 13 million.
1933-1937: DUST BOWL (3.3 Million leave Great Plains states)
1840: POPULATIONOVER 17 MILLION
1960: POPULATION approx. 180 MILLION
1970: POPULATION 203 MILLION
1980: POPULATION 226 MILLION + 3-6 MILLION ILLEGAL ALIENS
1990: POPULATION 249 MILLION
(1 in 4 Americans belongs to a minority group)
Business model was very important,
causing schools to focus more on results
based on evaluations.
•Discovery Learning
•Spiral curriculum
•Study of mathematical structures
Theories from Piaget, Bruner, & Dienes are introduced to help teach students. These are sociocultural theories and theories of Developmental Psychology to help instruct how students learn best.
•Back to Drill & Practice
•Learning the facts
Understand how something works
Students learn the whys
Connectionism
(again)
Skill Development
Factual knowledge
•Discovery Learning
•Problem Solving
Vygotsky's theories are used to help understand how to instruct students.
Problem Solving
Thinking Processes
1894-1923:
Wilson conducted the Connersville study, the conclusion was that schools should be teaching material that will be beneficial for the child when they are adults.
The reason for this impact was that America during this time was going through a transition of becoming an industrial nation and
math instruction was designed to prepare students for life in an industrial society
.
1821-1894: During this period
arithmetic passed from the high schools
to the elementary school.
Algebra becomes a part of curriculum
in high school, with geometry following.
Teacher training including formal teacher
training began to be part of universities as
early as 1832.
Increases in population
and an industrial society led
to more students not going to
college after high school, leading
to diversification in what was
being taught in high schools.
Due to the lack of standardization
and expectations of what was being
taught in high schools, the College
Entrance Exam Board was established
to bring uniformity. Had huge impact
on what is being taught secondary schools.
1935
1939-1941: WWII
1939: "Separate but Equal" Gaines v Canada
1954: Brown v. Board of Education
1957: USSR launches Sputnik
1958: Eisenhower signs National Defense Education Act
1958: School Mathematics Study Group established
1959: Woods Hole Conference
1959: Commission on Mathematics publishes final report
1961: Bay of Pigs, Berlin Wall Built
1962: President Kennedy speech at Rice University about Apollo Program
1962: Purdue University establishes first Department of Computer Science
1964: Civil Rights Act
1965: Elementary & Secondary Education Act
1965: US ground troops sent to Vietnam
1967: First hand-held calculator from Texas Instruments
1969: First Moon Landing (Apollo II)
Standards and Accountability
1990s - 2000s
1989 NRC
Everybody Counts
1989 NCTM
Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics
NCTM
Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics
1992 California Math Frameworks
Mid-1990s Math Wars - basic skills vs conceptual understanding
Mathematically Correct (traditionalists) vs Mathematically Sane (progressivists)
1991 & 1994 NSF grants - Urban Systematic Initiative
1994 Goals 2000 Educate America Act
1995 NCTM
Assessment Standards for Teaching Mathematics
1996 TIMSS
1999 Liping Ma
Knowing and Teaching Elementary
Mathematics - Comparative study of China and U.S.
2000, 2001
Principles and Standards for School Mathematic
s &
Adding It Up
published, respectively
2001 No Child Left Behind Act
Constructivism
Sociocultural Theory
RME (Realistic Mathematics Instruction)
CGI (Cognitively Guided Instruction)
Social Justice
Business and Industry
Math Educators vs Mathematicians
Population increase of nearly 33 million
-Immigration from Latin America, Caribbean, & Asia
Political Agenda
-attempt to be 1st in world in Math by 2000
1990 WWW
1992 Rodney King - LA Riots
1995 Oklahoma Bombings
1999 Digital Downloading - Copyright issues

1980 - Agenda for Action
1983 - Nation At Risk
1986 - NCTM creates commission on standards for school mathematics
1987 - Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics
1989 - NCTM - Released Standards to emphasize K-4, 5-8,9-12

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