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Australia's Endemic Species

By Group 1 wiki: Princess, Leanne, Suzanne and Juan
by

Princess Galaraga

on 25 January 2015

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Transcript of Australia's Endemic Species

Australia's
Endemic Species

Bilby
Diet
Breeding
Emu
Habitat
Diet
Their broad diet consists of vegetation: leaves, fruit, flowers, insects and bugs. Swallowing small stones helps in digestion and daily water consumption is
8 - 9 litres.
Status
Description
The Emu belongs to the group ratites, meaning flightless birds. An adult stands up to 2 meters tall and weighs up to 50 kg. Their feathers are double shafted giving the birds a loose, shaggy look. Life expectancy can reach 5 to 10 years.
Breeding
Emus sexually mature at around 2 years, finding partners in summer and breeding in winter. Females will lay a clutch of 6 - 11 eggs. Males will incubate them for 60 days and takes care of the young up to 2 years after hatching. Females go off and find another mate. This ability to reproduce rapidly favoured its survival.
Emus are found widespread throughout Australia, surviving in most habitats except for tropical rainforest and very dry desert conditions.
Platypus
Emus are of least concern having 725,000 in the wild, stated by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. There are few threats to their species: cats, wedge tail eagles and humans. Running in a zigzag pattern as fast as 40 - 50 km/hour when threatened effectively exhausts their predators.
Conclusion
These species show how Australian fauna have evolved unique characteristics which enable them to live in an often inhospitable landscape.

All of their populations and habitats are under threat, not only from introduced species but also the harsh climate, floods, and bushfire. The main threat to their habitats however, is from humans. Continual population growth means more land taken for housing and an expansion of necessary infrastructure. Another factor is intensive farming practices with the resulting destruction of habitats.

Fortunately steps are being taken by Government Agencies, Zoos and Wildlife Societies all over Australia to protect these species.

The Bilby is omnivorous and has a variety of food including plants, fungi, animals etc. It will eat whatever is available seasonally in it's arid environment. They get most of their water from food.
The Bilby has a backward opening pouch with 8 nipples. Pregnant for only two weeks, the babies stay in the pouch for 80 days. Within 2 weeks of leaving the pouch they are independent. Bilbies can have up to four litters a year.
Description
The Greater Bilby (the Lesser Bilby is extinct) is a nocturnal marsupial. It's body is 50cm long and has a light grey and white coat, a long black and white 29 cm tail with a spur like tip. It has a long snout and large hairless ears. They have a well developed sense
of smell which helps them find food.
Status
The Greater Bilby is listed as endangered in Queensland, vulnerable elsewhere. Bilbies were found in most of Australia but have disappeared from 80% of their former habitat. Feral cats and foxes are the biggest threat to the population. Sheep and cattle compact the soil and destroy their habitat and the rabbit competes for burrows and food.
Habitat
Bilbies are found in small populations in NW of Australia in hot, dry areas where there are Mulga scrub lands and Spinifex grassland. Their two meter deep spiraling burrows keeps them safe and at a temperature of 23 degrees. They have a sleeping burrow and others for hiding from predators.
Diet
Habitat
Description
Breeding
Superb lyrebirds live in the Great Dividing Range forests,—South-Eastern Australia, New South Wales and Victoria.
Albert's lyrebirds live in and around the border of Queensland/New South Wales— sub-tropical rainforest.
Lyrebirds eat invertebrates such as ground-dwelling insects (cockroaches, beetles), spiders, frogs and fly larvae.
Lyrebirds are very timid and they rarely fly.
They escape from danger by running and dodging rapidly through the undergrowth.
Albert's lyrebird is an endangered species.
Lyrebirds are an Australia endemic bird. There are two species, Superb lyrebird and Albert's lyrebird.
When the male Superb lyrebird displays, the tail looks very much like a lyre. Females have no lyre shaped tail.
Their most notable ability is to imitate almost any sound.
Lyrebirds live up to 30 years and have a long breeding cycle.
Superb lyrebirds breeding age: female 5-6; male 6-8.
Males attract females by displaying tail and song. Males can have several females.
Females lay one egg at a time and it takes about 50 days to hatch. Baby lyrebirds remain in the nest for 6-10 weeks.
Status

Australians are fortunate to have a diverse range of unusual and exotic indigenous animals which are found nowhere else in the world. The five species chosen for this presentation range from the relatively unknown Bilby to the well-known Platypus, Lyrebird and Emu.

All the species shown have developed physical characteristics, living and breeding habits which enable them to live in an often hostile Australian environment. Perhaps the most unusual species is the Platypus, which not only has a bill like a duck, but poisonous spurs on its feet.

These species are protected under Australian law and come from different regions of Australia.



References:
Introduction
(
Greater Bilby-Macrotis Lagotis
Pg 1 2014)
(Alice Springs Nature Park

n.d)
(Greater Bilby-Macrotis Lagotis
Pg 1 2014
)
(Greater Bilby-Macrotis Lagotis
Pg 1 2014
)
(Greater Bilby-Macrotis Lagotis
Pg 1 2014
)
Description
Habitat
Diet
Breeding
Status
(NSW Environment and Heritage 2014)
(
Environment Australia
. 2004)
(
Adelaide Zoo.
n.d)
(
Platypus-Ornithorhynchus anatinus.
2013)
(
Time is Running out for Old Man Emu.
2004)


(NSW Environment and Heritage 2014)
(NSW Environment and Heritage 2014)
(NSW Environment and Heritage 2014)
(NSW Environment and Heritage 2014)
(Australia Zoo, n.d.)
(Parks Victoria Information Centre, n.d.)
(Australia Zoo, n.d.)
(Healesville Sanctuary 2014.)
(Parks Victoria Information Centre, n.d. )
(Perth Zoo, n.d.)
(Healesville Sanctuary, 2014)
(Parks Victoria Information Centre, n.d.)
(Healesville Sanctuary 2014.)
Lyrebird
Platypus are protected by legislation in all states that Platypus are known to reside. They are a "least concern" species by IUCN (assessed in 2008), however, they are listed as endangered in South Australia. Dogs, foxes, goannas, snakes, eel, feral animals and birds of prey are their main threat and also salt water crocodiles during flooding seasons. Illegal fishing nets, water pollution and destruction of habitat are also contributing factors to their existence. As the Platypus is such a shy creature, this contributes to the lack of knowledge of population sizes in known fresh water environments.
The mating season for Platypus varies depending on their location. Most breeding information is gathered from animals in captivity. Females build a nest in a long complex burrow. Platypus become reproductive in their second year of life. After mating the female lays between 1-3 eggs with a 21 day gestation period, followed by approximately 10 days of incubation. The female lactates for 3-4 months.
The Platypus feeds only in the water, then stores food in its cheek pouches and surfaces to eat. Their diet mostly consists of insects, including larvae and is also known to eat freshwater shrimp, snails, mussels, crayfish, tadpoles, mites and worms.
Platypus reside in bodies of fresh water including streams and rivers, ideally with banks and native vegetation. Platypus distribution is generally confined to the river systems of Eastern and South Eastern Australia.
Platypus are Mammals that lay eggs, known as Monotremes. Features of the Platypus include a bill, broad flat tail, short limbs, webbed feet,and poisonous spurs used as a defense mechanism. Males weigh up to 3kg and females up to 1.7kg. Length of males is up to 63cm and females 55cm. They have a swimming speed of approximately 1m/second.

(Australian Museum, 2014)
(Sydney Aquarium, 2014)
(Australian Museum, 2014)
(Australian Platypus Conservancy, 2014)
(Australian Museum, 2014)
(Australian Platypus Conservancy, 2014)
(Australian Museum, 2014)
(Sydney Aquarium, 2014)
(Australian Platypus Conservancy, 2014)
(Australian Museum, 2014)
Adelaide Zoo. (n.d).
Superb Lyrebird.
Retrieved from
http://zoossa.com.au/adelaide-zoo/animals-exhibits/animals/birds?species=Superb+Lyerbird

Australia Zoo
. (2015). Birds-Emu.
Retrieved from
http://www.australiazoo.com.au/our-animals/birds/ratites/emu

Australian Government Department of the Environment. (2004).
Bilby (Macrotis lagotis) Environment Australia.
Retrieved from http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/bilby-macrotis-lagotis

Australian Platypus Conservancy. (2014).
The Platypus: A Very Special Australian.
Retrieved from
http://www.platypus.asn.au/

Australian Wildlife Protection Council. (2004).
Time is running out for Old Man Emu.
Retrieved from
http://www.awpc.org.au/other_fauna/oldmanemu.htm

Divljan, A. (2014).
Animal Species: Platypus.
Retrieved from http://australianmuseum.net.au/Platypus/

Healesville Sanctuary. (2014).
Emu Zoos Victoria.
Retrieved from
http://www.zoo.org.au/healesville/animals/emu

Northern Territory Government Alice Springs Nature Park. (n.d).
Nature notes-Bilby.
Retrieved from
http://www.alicespringsdesertpark.com.au/kids/nature/mammals/bilby.shtml

NSW Government Environment and Heritage. (2014).
Lyrebirds.
Retrieved from
http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/animals/lyrebirds.htm

Parks Victoria Park Notes. (2011).
Emu Dromaius navaehollandiae.
Retrieved from
http://parkweb.vic.gov.au/learn/information-for-students/fact-files

Perth Zoo Saving Wildlife. (2012).
Emu.
Retrieved from
http://perthzoo.wa.gov.au/animals-plants/australia/australian-bushwalk/emu/

Save the Bilby Fund. (2014).
Greater Bilby-Macrotis Lagotis Pg 1
. Retrieved from
http://www.savethebilbyfund.com/bilbies.php

Sydney Aquarium. (2014).
Streams and Billabongs: Platypus.
Retrieved from
http://www.sydneyaquarium.com.au/explore/streams-and-billabongs/platypus/

Wildlife Preservation Society of Queensland. (2013).
Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus).
Retrieved
from http://www.wildlife.org.au/wildlife/speciesprofile/mammals/platypus.html

All-free-download.com. (2012)
Australia Map Vector
[Image] Retrieved from
http://all-free-download.com/free-vector/vector-misc/australia_map_vector_47918.html

Attis1979. (2007).
Superb Lyrebird
[Photograph]. Retrieved from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Display#mediaviewer/File:Lantfarku.jpg

Environment Protection Agency. (n.d).
Bilby
[photograph]. Retrieved from
http://www.animalstown.com/animals/b/bilby/wallpapers/bilby-wallpaper-hhttt

Mrbob. (2005).
Ornithorhynchidae
[Photograph]. Retrieved from
http://uncyclopedia.wikia.com/wiki/File:Ornithorhynchidae-00_jpghtpp://

Quartl. (2009).
Emu
(Dromaius novaehollandia) at Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary, Brisbane, Australia [Photograph]. Retrieved from
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Emu¬_Back.JPG

Images
https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcT78uYKGohml0uxSWeUzI8ham54gVwAwx4nJkn0XD8t6lWPIxkdJQ
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