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US Government EOC Review
Transcript of US Government EOC Review
Types of Government
III C.6 Contrast Unitary, confederal and Federal systems
Types of Government
Types of Government
In the dictionary definition, democracy "is government by the people
in which the supreme power is vested in the people
and exercised directly by them or by their
elected agents under a free electoral system."
In the phrase of Abraham Lincoln, democracy is a government "of the people, by the people, and for the people."
Philosophical Foundations of Our government
Democracies fall into two basic categories, direct and representative.
In a direct democracy, all citizens, without the intermediary of elected or appointed officials,
and can participate in making public decisions.
In a representative democracy, in which citizens elect officials to make political decisions, formulate laws, and administer programs for the public good.
• Sovereignty of the people.
• Government based upon consent of the governed.
• Majority rule.
• Minority rights.
• Guarantee of basic human rights.
• Free and fair elections.
• Equality before the law.
• Due process of law.
• Constitutional limits on government.
• Social, economic, and political pluralism.
• Values of tolerance, pragmatism, cooperation, and compromise
Pillars of Democracy
Clause 40, no one will we sell, to no one will we deny or delay right or justice
In clause 39, the king promises, “No free man shall be taken or imprisoned or
have their land taken away or outlawed or exiled or in any way destroyed, nor will we go or send against him, except by the lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of the land.
The Magna Carta
Types of Government
III A.1 Analyze the structure powers and role of the Legislative branch of the U.S. government
The Legislative branch:
Established by Article I of the Constitution, the Legislative Branch consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate, which together form the United States Congress.
The Constitution grants Congress the sole authority to enact legislation and declare war, the right to confirm or reject many Presidential appointments, and substantial investigative powers.
The House of Representatives is made up of 435 elected members,
divided among the 50 states in proportion to their total population.
The presiding officer of the chamber is the Speaker of the House, elected by the Representatives. He or she is third in the line of succession to the Presidency.
Members of the House are elected every two years and must be 25 years of age, a U.S. citizen for at least seven years, and a resident of the state (but not necessarily the district) they represent.
The House has several powers assigned exclusively to it, including the power to initiate revenue bills, impeach federal officials, and elect the President in the case of an electoral college tie.
III- C.2 Analyze and explain the philosophical foundations of the American political system in terms of inalienable right of people and purpose of government
The Senate is composed of 100 Senators, 2 for each state.
Until the ratification of the 17th Amendment in 1913, Senators were chosen by state legislatures, not by popular vote. Since then, they have been elected to six-year terms by the people of each state. Senator's terms are staggered so that about one-third of the Senate is up for reelection every two years. Senators must be 30 years of age, U.S. citizens for at least nine years, and residents of the state they represent.
The Vice President of the United States serves as President of the Senate and may cast the decisive vote in the event of a tie in the Senate.
The Senate has the sole power to confirm those of the President's appointments and to ratify treaties.
The Senate also tries impeachment cases for federal officials referred to it by the House.
The power of the Executive Branch is vested in the President of the United States, who acts as:
head of state and Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces.
The President is responsible for implementing and enforcing the laws written by Congress and, appoints the heads of the federal agencies, including the Cabinet.
The Vice President is also part of the Executive Branch, ready to assume the Presidency should the need arise.
The Cabinet and independent federal agencies are responsible for the day-to-day enforcement and administration of federal laws.
These departments and agencies have missions and responsibilities as widely divergent as those of the Department of Defense and the Environmental Protection Agency, the Social Security Administration and the Securities and Exchange Commission.
The Founding Documents
III-C.4Analyze the historical sources and ideals of the structure of the United States government.
John Locke - In a natural state or state of nature
all people were equal and independent,
and everyone had a natural right to defend his
“life, health, liberty, or possessions (property).”
Locke also advocated governmental separation of powers
and believed that revolution is not only a right
but an obligation in some circumstances.
Watch this presentation:
III-A.2 Analyze the structure, powers, and role of the executive branch of the United States
Examine the election of the president through the nomination process, national conventions,
and Electoral College.
III-A-4 Analyze the structure, powers, and role of the judicial branch of the United States
government, including landmark United States Supreme Court decisions.
III-A.5 Analyze the rights, protections, limits, and freedoms included within the United States
Constitution and Bill of Rights.
III-C.3 Analyze the fundamental principles in the Declaration of Independence. 3 min.
(I apologize for the chicken joke)
III C.9 Analyze and evaluate the concept of limited government and the rule of law.
Government has only those powers delegated to it by the people. Several articles and amendments to the Constitution create a limited federal government: one restrained to specific, enumerated powers. This federal system serves as a check on government power. Article I lists the powers of Congress, Article II lists the powers of the executive branch, and Article III lists the powers of the judiciary branch. The structure and purpose of each branch was devised so as to assure checks and balances, which provide another way of limiting government power and potential abuses. The Tenth Amendment notes that the states or the people retain those powers not delegated to the federal government.
III- C. 10 Compare and contrast the characteristics of representative governments.
Representative Democracy is made up of elected officials who represent a country, community etc. They are chose based on popular vote meaning that the person who won received the most votes from the people. This type of democracy gives its people control of who they believe will make the best decisions for the citizens as a whole.
You vote for someone to make decisions for you
III.C.12 Compare and contrast the philosophical foundations of forms of government to understand
the purpose of the corresponding political systems (e.g., socialism, capitalism, secular,
III-C.12 Describe and analyze the influence of the non-elected (e.g., staff, lobbyists, interest groups).
Click here for Presentation:
III-D.2 Analyze the rights and obligations of citizens in the United States.
NM Constitution Some key points/ differences:
We are the only bi-lingual state
Both the US Constitution and New Mexico’s Constitution have separation of powers through a Legislative, Executive and Judicial branch.
Note the distinctions with the Preambles to the US Constitution and the Constitution of New Mexico – the founding fathers made a point of not specifically mentioning God whereas the state of New Mexico starts with such.
In Article 1 the legislative powers as well as qualifications for both Representatives and Senators are given. In New Mexico, Senators are also to be older than Representatives but the ages are 25 and 21. Justices of the State Supreme Court must be at least 30 as well as all those in the Executive Branch of New Mexico like the governor, Lt. governor, Secretary of State etc.