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Transcript of https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7f-K-XnHi9I
Facts about the moon
The planets in order
the Moon was probably made 4.5 billion years ago when a large object hit the Earth and blasted out rocks that came together to orbit round the Earth. They eventually melted together, cooled down and became the Moon. For another 500 million years pieces of rock kept striking aginst the surface of the Moon.
•You can see the surface of the Moon by using a pair of binoculars or a small telescope. The Moon’s surface shows the damage caused by these large pieces of rock hitting it billions of years ago. The surface is covered in craters, pits and scars.
•From the Earth we can only see one side of the Moon; the other side is always turned away from us. Photographs from space show a similar scarred surface on the other side.
•The Earth has a much greater surface than the Moon and was also hit by debris (the rocks from explosions and collisions) but over time the damage has disappeared. The wind and rain in the Earth’s atmosphere has helped to erode the pits and craters.
•The Moon has no atmosphere and so we can still see the damage caused billions of years ago.
•If you look at the Moon when it is nearly full you can see the dark areas which are known as the seas. (They are all given Latin names, such as Mare Serenitatis – the Sea of Serenity, or Mare Frigoris – the Sea of Cold).These are not really seas but are huge expanses of smooth dark lava.
If you weigh 100 pounds on Earth, you would weigh 264 pounds on Jupiter.
Jupiter has a mass 318 times greater than the Earth's and a diameter that is 11 times larger.
The mass of Jupiter is 70% of the total mass of all the other planets in our Solar System.
Jupiter's volume is large enough to contain 1,300 planets the size of Earth.
Jupiter rotates faster than any planet in the Solar System.
It rotates so quickly that the days are only 10 hours long...
But it takes 12 Earth years for Jupiter to complete an orbit around the sun.
The great red spot on Jupiter is a storm that has been going on for over 300 years.
You can fit 100 Earths into Jupiter's great red spot.
Jupiter has the biggest moon in the Solar System, Ganymede. It is even bigger than Mercury and Pluto.
Jupiter has a ring just like Saturn and Uranus.
The Planet has over 60 known satellites (moons) but most of them are extremely small and faint.
Jupiter is covered by an ocean of hydrogen with a sludge-like consistency.
Unlike other planets, Jupiter sends out a strong radio radiation that can be detected on Earth.
In 1994, pieces of a comet called shoemaker-Levy 9 broke apart and crashed into Jupiter. This left patches in Jupiter's atmosphere that lasted for many months.
Saturn can be seen with the naked eye:
It is the fifth brightest object in the solar system and is also easily studied through binoculars or a small telescope.
Saturn was known to the ancients, including the Babylonians and Far Eastern observers:
It is named for the Roman god Saturnus, and was known to the Greeks as Cronus.
Saturn is the flattest planet:
Its polar diameter is 90% of its equatorial diameter, this is due to its low density and fast rotation. Saturn turns on its axis once every 10 hours and 34 minutes giving it the second-shortest day of any of the solar system’s planets.
Saturn orbits the Sun once every 29.4 Earth years:
Its slow movement against the backdrop of stars earned it the nickname of “Lubadsagush” from the ancient Assyrians. The name means “oldest of the old”.
Saturn’s upper atmosphere is divided into bands of clouds:
The top layers are mostly ammonia ice. Below them, the clouds are largely water ice. Below are layers of cold hydrogen and sulfur ice mixtures.
Saturn has oval-shaped storms similar to Jupiter’s:
The region around its north pole has a hexagonal-shaped pattern of clouds. Scientists think this may be a wave pattern in the upper clouds. The planet also has a vortex over its south pole that resembles a hurricane-like storm.
Mars and Earth have approximately the same landmass:
Even though Mars has only 15% of the Earth’s volume and just over 10% of the Earth’s mass, around two thirds of the Earth’s surface is covered in water. Martian surface gravity is only 37% of the Earth’s (meaning you could leap nearly three times higher on Mars).
Mars is home to the tallest mountain in the solar system.
Olympus Mons, a shield volcano, is 21km high and 600km in diameter. Despite having formed over billions of years, evidence from volcanic lava flows is so recent many scientists believe it could still be active.
Only 18 missions to Mars have been successful
As of September 2014 there have been 40 missions to Mars, including orbiters, landers and rovers but not counting flybys. The most recent arrivals include the Mars Curiosity mission in 2012, the MAVEN mission, which arrived on September 22, 2014, followed by the Indian Space Research Organization’s MOM Mangalyaan orbiter, which arrived on September 24, 2014. The next missions to arrive will be the European Space Agency’s ExoMars mission, comprising an orbiter, lander, and a rover, followed by NASA’s InSight robotic lander mission, slated for launch in March 2016 and a planned arrival in September, 2016.”
Mars has the largest dust storms in the solar system:
They can last for months and cover the entire planet. The seasons are extreme because its elliptical (oval-shaped) orbital path around the Sun is more elongated than most other planets in the solar system.