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Transcript of 5000 B.C
Pharmaceutical History In Egypt
Pharmacy in ancient Egypt
It is impossible to determine either when humans first began to mix substances and concoct preparations that produced perceived or real therapeutic effects but a lot of historians claim that Egypt was the cradle of pharmacy.
Pharmacy and Arabs
The differentiation and separation of two scientific disciplines, medicine and pharmacy begins during the 12th century.
The Arabs imprinted a new impetus to the study of medicine and pharmacy.
The doctor was preparing himself or with the help of one of his disciples has medicaments for his patients, which is why the pharmacy was not distinct from medical practice alone, some drugs or dried plants were sold by the Attarines, which although never charged with preparing denied-of selling all kinds of poisonous substances.
They discovered how to distill from sublimate, to separate, to volatilize and dissolve certain substances and drugs.
The Arabs at the time of the Caliphs had invented a kind of code in which pharmaceutical preparations were sanctioned by the government and were covered with his seal.
The development of pharmacy from 1824 until 1996
Mohamed Ali Pasha is the one who made changes to the history of pharmacy as he founded the first school of pharmacy in Egypt in1824 by establishing the hospital “Abu Zaabal” in Cairo.
the eminent French Doctor “Antoine Clot” invited several professors from Europe to join the newly-born schools of medicine and pharmacy.
After five years this school transfer to El-Kalaa (the citadel area), then it transferred to "Kasr El-Aini" the place where the residence of the Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University until today.
After the opening of the second faculty of Pharmacy in Alexandria in 1948, other governmental faculties of Pharmacy began to be established in various cities; starting with Assuit, El-Azhar (males), Mansoura, Tanta and Zagazig in the period from 1961 to 1975. Then, Suez Canal, Beni-Suef, Helwan and Ain Shams from 1993 to 1996, ending up with El-Azhar (females) and El-Minya in the late 90s. Eventually there were thirteen governmental faculties of pharmacy.
The majority of them adhere to the guidelines and curricula of the “mother” faculty of pharmacy, Cairo University.
Egyptian pharmaceuticals in present
Pharmacy in Egypt and the Future
Problems that face the pharmacy career and has an effect on the future
Pharmacy in Egypt and the Future
Eight medical papyri thus far are translated and commented on. All of them were written between about 1900 and 1100 B.C.74, but much of the knowledge in them probably is far older.
The Ebers papyrus contains the greatest number of drugs and formulas, but the medical papyri as a group testify to the extensive attention accorded the preparation and the use of drugs.'s flyers Papyrus. Containing remnants of various earlier treatises, but complete as written and more than 20 meters long, the Ebers papyrus has attracted scholars again and again.
Egyptian Medicinal Plants
The Ancient Egyptians were quite advanced in their diagnoses and treatments of various illnesses. Their advancements in ancient medical techniques were quite extraordinary, considering the lack of “modern” facilities, sterilization, sanitation, and researching capabilities. The remedies used by Ancient Egyptian physicians came mostly from nature, and many are still considered viable homeopathic treatments for certain ailments today.
There were not many medicinal plants native to ancient Egypt due to topographic peculiarity. Bounded on the east by the Arabian desert and on the west by the Libyan desert, Egypt's populace was restricted to the valley inundated by the Nile. On the other hand, Theophrastus (4th century B.C.), quoting the verses of Homer, praises the many and efficacious medicinal plants of ancient Egypt; Dioscorides (1st century A.D.) mentions the Egyptian origin of 80 vegetable drugs that he described. We may suppose that the ancient Egyptians cultivated other plants originally not native to their country and used them medicinally. For example, pomegranate was not indigenous to Egypt but must have been cultivated extensively there about 1100 B.C.
The Practice of Medicine and Pharmacy
The variety of preparations of drugs used in Egyptian medicine that required professional skill implies a more definitely distinguished group of preparers of medicine. Such a group did exist, although the exact character and refinement of "pharmacy" at such a remote time eludes us. To present any systematic account of pharmaceutical practice requires scholarly conjectures and assumptions based on single passages or even a half-understood phrase in the ancient hieroglyphics.
• The Egyptian Pharmaceutical Industry
Egyptian pharmaceutical industry is considered as one of the oldest strategic industries in the country. It developed slowly between 1960s to 1980s following nationalization schemes which brought the industry under full government control.
Egypt is considered the largest producer and consumer of pharmaceutical in the MENA region which absorbs most of Egyptian pharmaceutical export .
The Egyptian pharmaceutical market is expected to grow at an accelerated rate to reach 5 billion in 2002.
• Pharmaceutical procurement and distribution in the public sector
The public sector procurement is centralized under the responsibility of a procurement agency.
There is a written public sector procurement policy in 1998. Legal provisions exist that give priority to locally produces goods in public procurement. The key functions of the procurement unit and those of the tender committee are not clearly separated. 48 A process exists to ensure the quality of products that are publicly procured. The quality assurance process includes the pre-qualification of products and suppliers.
A list of samples tested during the procurement process and the results of quality testing are available. The tender methods employed in public sector procurement include national competitive tenders .
Types of pharmacy in Egypt
The largest number of pharmacists in Egypt is working as community Pharmacists More and more community pharmacists are practicing some components of pharmaceutical care services.
Clinical pharmacy services in hospitals
Clinical pharmacy services are practiced to different extent at various specialized departments and hospitals in collaboration with patients and other health care professionals based on evidence-based data
Hospital pharmacy services
The areas covered by hospital pharmacy services
In academic institutions, pharmacists are engaged in teaching, research, and pharmacy practice development. Undergraduate postgraduate and continuing education require that the educators should be aware of global pharmacy profession development and the national needs.
1) In pharmacy universities, there are unbalanced ratio between medical, pharmaceutical and chemistry courses eg. Some schools do not teach enough clinical pharmacy and chemistry & put the load on the pharmacognosy.
2) Not enough consideration to non-traditional and modern ways of teaching.
4) The supervision of government has to be permanent because actually, we see announcements of toxic drugs in streets & drugs with unknown sources can be bought in pharmacies, which symbolize danger on health.
5) the value of pharmacist is a little bit in reduce because there are many quotes or cultures in Egypt that call the pharmacist as “A Buyer ”which can convert pharmacy from medicinal work to business.
1) To have an Egyptian pharmacopeia because it will save the meaning of drugs in Egypt.
2) The pharmacy curriculum have to be prepared to:
-provide pharmaceutical care to patients
-develop and manage medication distribution and control system
3) The practice of pharmacy in faculties and enlarge the new branches like: clinical, toxicology, research like European countries
4) Governments has to provide labs for research to save the quality.
5) Make laws to ensure that expired drugs not sold.