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The Commonwealth Period
Transcript of The Commonwealth Period
Commonwealth Act No. 1
Social Justice Program of President Quezon
The Commonwealth Period
The Fairfield Bill
- A compromise measure which provided for a long transition period and many reservations of power for the United States.
Hare - Hawes - Cutting Bill
- Critics of the 1934 Constitutional Convention particularly Jose P. Laurel claimed that the 1935 constitution is invalid for we don’t need any other country’s approval for our own constitution
Department of Education
- Rafael Palma – appointed as chairman of National Council of Education in 1936.
- 1936, The Commonwealth created a Surian ng Wikang Pambansa(National Language Institute).
Reporter: Noelene Dacee A. Delos Reyes
The Commonwealth Period
Tydings - McDuffie Act
Economic Condition of the Philippines
during Commonwealth Period
American Influences to the
- General McIntyre claimed to be the creator of this bill.
- Its main supporters are the American businessmen who have their investments in the country.
- The National Defense Act
- Requiring all 21 year old able-bodied male citizens to render 5 and ½ months of military service through regular military force or through reserve force Philippine History with Philippine Constitution
- In May 1935 approximately 65,000 Filipino peasants headed by Benigno Ramos surrounded Manila to dramatize their demands for genuine agrarian reform, abolition of unfair taxes, government policy against land grabbing and total independence from Americans.
- Manuel L. Quezon – the Father of Social Justice
- His administration was committed in the promotion of genuine reconciliation through genuine social justice.
- The minimum wage law and 8-hr labor law were seriously implemented.
- The 1935 constitution was approved by then President of America, Franklin Delano Roosevelt Philippine History with Philippine Constitution.
- The law promised Philippine independence after 10 years, but
reserved several military and naval bases for the United States,
as well as imposing tariffs and quotas on Philippine exports.
- 1937, Tagalog was selected as the basis for the "national language" to be called "Pilipino".
- In 1940, the creation of a dictionary and grammar book for the language was authorized by the Commonwealth.
- Commonwealth Act 570 was passed, declaring Tagalog as the official language of the Philippines effective upon the declaration of the Philippine Independence.
- In 1971, the official language became 'Filipino'.
- V.P. Sergio Osmena – head of the Department of Education, the first time a Filipino assumed this position.
- The goal of educating the Filipino children was a failure:
- 1,961,861 were enrolled.
- Less than 50% were enrolled in public schools.
- 1/2 of the population over 10 years of age were functionally illiterate.
- Claro M. Recto, one of the 4 Democratas, elected to the House in 1919.
- The Nacionalistas won 78 out of 82 seats.
The party leaders participated in a collaborative leadership with the United States.
- In 1919, government expenditures exceeded income - P7,000,000.
A year after, the Philippine National Bank lost P38,000,000.
- Manuel L. Quezon had decided to separate from Sergio Osmeña on the issue of personal leadership.
- 3 candidates for speakership:
+ Claro Recto (Democrats)
+ Manuel Roxas (Colectivistas)
+ Mariano Cuenco (Unipersonalistas)
- The US passed Hare-Hawes-Cutting bill as a means of granting Philippine independence – A product of the OSROX mission (Osmena-Roxas).
- On October 17, 1933 the legislature, through the concurrent resolution rejected the Hare-Hawes- Cutting Bill Philippine History with Philippine Constitution.
- In March, 1934, the US passed the Tydings-Mcduffie Act. – This time it was Quezon and Quirino who went to US to clamor for Philippine independence. – Approved on May 1, 1934.
- It was authored by Maryland Senator Millard E. Tydings and
Alabama Representative John McDuffie, and signed into law by
President Franklin D. Roosevelt, all Democrats.
The most important sector:
Rice, coconut, sugar, abaca and tobacco
Source of Employment:
65% of the labor force
Source of National Income:
40% of the national income
Income from Exports:
75% from the value of exports
Major Import and Export Partner:
United States of America
System of Public Education
Advance System on Public Health and Sanitation
Trading System, Commerce and Industries
Government Affairs through Free and Open Elections
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