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Diversity of Life Mind Map

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Sebastian Blair

on 26 November 2012

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Transcript of Diversity of Life Mind Map

Eukaryotes (Eukarya) Prokaryotes
(Eubacteria and Archaebacteria) Organisms that possess cells with membrane-bound nuclei and organelles Organisms with cells that lack membrane-bound nuclei and organelles Domain Eubacteria Domain Archaea Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia Both prokaryotic kingdoms (archaea and eubacteria) have diverse means of obtaining nutrition. Modes of Nutrition Extremophiles Archaea are best known to be inhabitants of extreme environments which can easily live there. They are known as extremophiles. Thermophiles thrive in very hot environments. Halophiles live in highly saline environments. Psychrophiles thrive in very cold environments. Methanogens use carbon dioxide to oxidize hydrogen gas, releasing methane as a waste product.
They are obligate anaerobes often found in areas with low amounts of oxygen in them such as some swamps and marshes. Representative Species Archaea are unicellular, prokaryotic organisms. Human Influence Humans take advantage of archaea's extremophile characteristic in commercial use, such as providing enzymes in detergents where high temperatures and pH will be applied. Halobacterium salinarium
(Extreme Halophile) Sulfolobus acidocaldarius
(Extreme Thermophile) Methanosarcina
(Methanogen) Desulfofrigus oceanense
(Psychrophile) Some archaea convert arsenic to a more toxic, readily soluble form during metabolism. This can be dangerous to humans who would use this water. Unique Cell Wall Eubacteria's cell walls are unique in that they contain peptidoglycan. This gives it strength to resist the effects of osmosis which would otherwise be devastating to the cell. Morphologies There are three major morphologies when considering eubacteria. Human Influence Cyanobacteria are the world's leading oxygen providers. Without them, our existence seems highly improbable. Many eubacteria are pathogenic species which can cause harm by causing diseases, food poisoning or other harmful effects. Nutritional Strategies 1. Autotroph Three Main Groups Plant-like Human Influence Algae are protists that are the basis of the food chain. They create food for other organisms which eventually makes its way to humans. They also produce more than half of the world's oxygen therefore they are vital for human life. A Diverse Kingdom The kingdom protista exhibits more structural and functional diversity than any other kingdom. It is a paraphyletic kingdom in which its species resemble greatly the kingdoms fungi, plantae and animalia. Five Major Phyla (cont.) Five Major Phyla Not Plants; Fungi Although plants and fungi are anatomically similar, fungi have many characteristics that are unique to their kingdom. Human Influence Fungi are useful to humans as they are a source of antibiotics (ie. penicillin) and secrete useful enzymes (ie. protease). Phyla of the Plant Kingdom Classes of Angiosperms Human Influence Human Influence The Ten Major Phyla There are 36 recognized phyla in the kingdom Animalia, but focus is on the ten major phyla. The Animal Kingdom All animals are multicellular organisms that lack cell walls. Rod-Shaped (Bacilli)
ie. Bacillus anthracis Spherical (Cocci)
ie. Meningococcus Spiral (Spiralla)
ie. S. minus
(causes rat-bite
fever) Based on the amount of peptidoglycan and the type of cell wall structure, a bacteria can be classified as either gram-positive or gram-negative as seen above. Most are unicellular and some are multicellular, but all require oxygen. Many protists are parasitic and can cause serious illness to humans such as malaria and African sleeping sickness. Animal-like Fungus-like Euglena are unicellular with a flagellum to propel itself through the water. They contain chloroplasts which allow them to photosynthesize like plants, but can also devour others for nutrition. They reproduce asexually through binary fission. 2. Heterotroph 3. Mixotroph Heterotrophic protists feed on other organisms to acquire energy and carbon such as in the form of fats and carbohydrates. These protists would likely use the sunlight and carbon dioxide. With the use of the chloroplasts within their cells, they can produce their own energy-containing organic molcules. These protists use a mixture of ways to acquire nutrition. They could, for example, be both autotrophic and heterotrophic. Based on the environmental circumstances, slime molds can either be unicellular or multicellular. They are heterotrophs that feed on microorganisms found in dead plant material. Their movement resembles that of an amoeba in which a front is extended then the rear is retracted. Slime molds are similar to fungi in that they undergo alternation of generations for reproduction. Cercozoa are unicellular and undergo binary fission. They are heterotrophic and have cilia which help them glide around. They have very ameoboid structures. Fungi are well known for their cell walls which are made out of chitin, a tough substance. And unlike plants, they cannot create energy through photosynthesis. Fungi undergo alternation of generations. Not Plants; Fungi (cont.) They are heterotrophic and are regarded as a major recycler in ecosystems; they are decomposers. Finally, fungi usually grow elongated and thin in strands called hyphae and groups of hyphae calle mycellium. The effects of global warming caused by human influence have sped up reproduction of fungi which may be beneficial to some species as they decompose organic material at a faster rate. They contain specialized cellular structures called tissues. Most animals ingest their food in their internal cavity and then digest it. Porifera Cnideria Chordates Mollusks Annelida Platyhelminthes Rotifers Nematoda Echinoderm Chytrids Basidiomycota Ascomycota They have swimming pores They can be single celled
or multicellular Most are saprophytes Zygomycota Most are soil fungi Many are parasite to insects Thay include familiar bread
and fruit molds. Glomeromycota All form symbiotic relationships
with plant roots. Many, such as yeast, are
very useful to humans. Some cause serious plant diseases. Most are decomposers Some form symbiotic
relationships with plants. Bracket fungi is part
of this phylum Each of those fungi
are a part of this phylum Example of
a chytrid Rhizopus's are an
exampleof a zygomycete. Mycorrhizae are an example
of a Glomeromycota The reproductive structures of a fungus is often the only part visible and above ground. The mycellium forms the body of the fungus below ground. Hyphae also grow at their tips, and the nuclei multiply by mitosis as the hyphae grow. No symmetry No nerves, can't move
no distinct tissue/organs Sponges belong to the
animal group of Porifera Radial symmetry Multicellular Has tissues Jellyfish are part
of the cnideria group Bilaterally symmetrical Distinct body plan;
cephalization Specialization and body
complexity Flatworms belong to the
group of Platyhelminthes Have a backbone Birds are members
of the chordates
group Have an endoskeleton Starfish are members
of the echinoderm phyla Simple body cavity Bdelloid rotifer's
belong to the phylum
of rotifers Body cavity,unsegmented
cylindical bodies Roundworms are part
of the Nematoda phya True coelom Slugs are part of
the Mollusk phyla True segmentation (fused
rings, repeating segmentation) Leeches are members of
the annelida group Anthropoda Has an exoskeleton Spiders are part
of the anthropods
phylum Seven major
classes of
chordates Aganthans Their skeleton is made out of cartilage and they have no jaws. Actinopterygii Their skeletons are bony. Most have a swim bladder. Most species use external fertilization. Most species can fly. They have feathers and are warm blooded. They use internal
fertilization. They are tetrapods and have hair. They nurse their young with milk produced in mammary glands. They are warm blooded. They have large brains and a good sense of smell. The three major groupings of mammals Monotromes Egg laying mammals. Lack Placenta and true nipples. Platapus lack a
placenta Marsupials Pouched mammals Offspring live from nipples Short lived placenta Kangaroo's are
marsupials Euthariens (Placental) True Placenta (supply
nutrients in uterus, removes waste). Humans have a
true placenta Humans are influencing other animals by all the pollution that they are creating. Several animals have now gone extinct due to those poor actions of humans. Humans are influencing other animals to adapt to new environments due to the fact that humans are destroying several animals natural habitats everyday. This bird was killed
by an oil spill Humans are greatly influenced by plants because they use them all the time in order to make medicine, paper and clothing for example. Unfortunately humans are also influencing plants too, because a large portion of their pollution that they create, are beginning to cause some plants to go extinct. Trees are used to
create paper Bryophytes A small seedless plant that lacks vascular tissue. Bryophytes require water for the sperm to swim to the egg during fertilization. Moss is an example
of a bryophyte Seedless Vascular These early tiny plants had independent, branching sporophytes but still require a film of water for the sperm to reach the egg. The sporophyte stage of seedless vascular plants is the larger (more dominant) generation, as in the familiar leafy fern. Ferns are an example of
a seedless vascular plant Gymnosperm Gymnosperms are plants that have seeds that are not enclosed in ovaries and their seeds are often exposed on modified leaves that form cones. Gymnosperms do not have fruits. Conifers are an example
of a gymnosperm Angiosperm Angiosperms (flowering plants) have seeds enclosed in fruits, which are mature ovaries. Flowers perform the same function as cones in
producing both pollen and eggs. Flowers are members of
the angiosperm phylum There are two types of seeds in angiosperms. They are either "mono" or "di" coltyledons. dicots (eudicot)
2 cotyledons (seed leaves)
leaves with network of veins
Ex:woody plants, trees, shrubs, beans monocots
1 cotyledon
leaves with parallel veins
Ex:grasses, palms, lilies Diversity of Life
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